Summary

The relationship between brain and mood disorders has been investigated based on numerous brain-related functions, including genetics, neurotransmitters, hormonal activity, anatomical structure, physiological functions, psychosocial aspects, and treatment response. Integrating these diverse areas of investigation into a coherent mechanism of mood disorders has not been accomplished, but significant progress is being made in all these areas of study. Since mood disorders are based on clinical and not laboratory criteria, the definition and classification of mood disorders play a central role in determining which brain changes are associated with mood disorder, and classification of mood disorders, continues to be an evolving area. The study of secondary depression, in which there is a well-defined neuropathology, has also contributed to our understanding of the brain-related mechanism of mood disorders. The exponential growth of genetic research has generated numerous investigations searching for the fundamental abnormality that leads to mood disorders. These studies continue to search for multigenic explanations for these disorders. Similarly, the development and growth of both structural and functional brain imaging techniques have led to a general consensus that the anatomical substrate of mood disorders involves dysfunction of the frontal cortical and basal ganglia-thalamic neuronal loops. In addition, neurotransmit-ter and neuroendocrine studies have established that changes in brain biochemistry are important elements that must be incorporated into any comprehensive explanation of the brain-related mechanism of mood disorders. Finally, one of the most successful areas of research in mood disorders is empirically based treatment. Although effective treatment suggests neu-rochemical mechanisms ofmood disorder, the fact that controlled treatment trials have established a firm scientific basis for treatment selection has allowed clinicians to effectively manage these disorders while we await a fundamental understanding of the brain mechanisms involved.

Understanding And Treating Autism

Understanding And Treating Autism

Whenever a doctor informs the parents that their child is suffering with Autism, the first & foremost question that is thrown over him is - How did it happen? How did my child get this disease? Well, there is no definite answer to what are the exact causes of Autism.

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