Although the cerebellum has historically been viewed as a brain region primarily involved in the coordination of movement, an increasing number of neuropsy-chological, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies show that the cerebellum plays a role in higher cognitive function, language, and emotional control. The development of the cerebellum in childhood and adolescence demonstrates two unique characteristics compared to other structures quantified by MRI. First, it is the most sexually dimorphic, being robustly larger in males (Fig. 3). Second, cerebellar size is the least heritable. That is, its size is similar in monozygotic versus dizygotic twins. Also, it is relatively late maturing. These features imply that the cerebellum is particularly sensitive to environmental influences during critical stages of development.

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