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It is known that the pancreatic islets are innervated by the autonomic nerves. The net effects of activation of the nerves on islet hormone secretion, the presumed neurotransmitters mediating these effects, and the putative receptors and their signaling pathways have also been established. In particular, several neuropep-tides have been localized to islet nerve terminals, and their actions on islet hormone secretion have been documented under a variety of experimental conditions. Studies are now required to establish the physiology and pathophysiology of the islet nerves and their neurotransmitters, particularly concerning the possible involvement of the nerves in the patho-physiology of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.

See Also the Following Articles

HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISMS • NEUROTRANSMITTERS • NOREPINEPHRINE • PEPTIDES, HORMONES, AND THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

Suggested Reading

Ahren, B. (2000). Autonomic regulation of islet hormone secretion.

Implications for health and disease. Diabetologia, 43, 393-410. Ahren, B., and Lindskog, S. (1992). Galanin and the regulation of islet hormone secretion. Int. J. Pancreatol. 11, 147-160. Ahren, B., and Pettersson, M. (1990). Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and amylin and the endocrine pancreas. Int. J. Pancreatol 6, 1-5. Ahren, B., Taborsky, G. J., Jr., and Porte, D., Jr., (1986). Neuropeptidergic versus cholinergic and adrenergic regulation of islet hormone secretion. Diabetologia 29, 827-836. Arimura, A., and Shioda, S. (1995). Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors: Neuroendocrine and endocrine interaction. Front. Neuroendocrinal. 16, 53-88.

Colmers, W. F., and Wahlestedt, C. (1993). The Biology of Neuropeptide Y and Related Peptides. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.

Filipsson, K., Kvist-Reimer, M. and Ahren, B. (2001). The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating poly-peptide and islet function. Diabetes 50, 1959-1969.

Karlsson, S., and Ahren, B. (1992). Cholecystokinin and the regulation of insulin secretion. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 27, 161-165.

Mutt, V.(1988). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and related peptides. Isolation and chemistry. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 527,1-19.

Sundler, F., and Böttcher, G. (1991). Islet innervation, with special reference to neuropeptides. In: The Endocrine Pancreas (E. Samols, Ed.), pp. 29-52. Raven Press, New York.

Woods, S. C., and Porte, D., Jr. (1974). Neural control of the endocrine pancreas. Physiol. Rev. 54, 596-619.

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