Conclusions

The field of mental retardation is quite broad, and the full range of disorders, treatment, and related diagnostic issues (e.g., assessment) cannot be realistically addressed within the confines of a single article. We have endeavored, however, to address many of the key issues inherent in this field, with a particular focus on historical foundations, definitional issues, etiological factors, and considerations such as comorbidity and treatment approaches. We also devoted significant discussion to several specific disorders, and it is believed that much of the future work in this field should address more homogeneous groupings of individuals with mental retardation. It is likely that this approach will be more informative for educators, clinicians, therapists, caseworkers, employers, and families. Even with its rich clinical and research history, this field holds great promise for future scientific advancement and improved clinical practice.

See Also the Following Articles

AUTISM • BRAIN DEVELOPMENT • CEREBRAL PALSY • INTELLIGENCE • LANGUAGE AND LEXICAL PROCESSING

Suggested Reading

American Association on Mental Retardation (2001). Request for comments on proposed new edition of Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Support. News and Notes 14(5), 9-12. American Association of Mental Retardation (1992). Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Support. American Association of Mental Retardation, Washington, DC. Baroff, G. S., and Olley, J. G. (1999). Mental Retardation: Nature,

Cause, and Management. Brunner/Mazel, Philadelphia. Batshaw, M. L., and Shapiro, B. K. (1997). Mental retardation. In Children with Disabilities (M. L. Batshaw, Ed.), 4th ed. Brookes, Baltimore.

Detterman, D. K. (1999). The psychology of mental retardation. Int.

Rev. Psychiatr. 11, 26-39. Goldstein, S., and Reynolds, C. R. (1999). Handbook of Neurode-velopmental and Genetic Disorders in Children. The Guilford, New York.

Hooper, S. R., Boyd, T. A., Hynd, G. W., and Rubin, J. (1993). Definitional issues and neurobiological foundations of selected severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Archives Clin. Neuropsych. 8, 279-307.

Matson, J. L., and Mulick, J. A. (1991). Handbook of Mental Retardation. Pergamon Press, New York.

McLauren, J., and Bryson, S. E. (1987). Review of recent epidemiological studies in mental retardation: Prevalence, associated disorders and etiology. Am. J. Mental Retardation 92, 243-254.

Pulsifer, M. B. (1995). The neuropsychology of mental retardation. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 2, 159-176.

Redden, S. C., Mulvihill, B. A., Wallander, J., and Hovinga, M. (2000). Applications of developmental epidemiological data linkage methodology to examine early risk for childhood disability. Dev. Rev. 20, 319-349.

Reiss, S. (2000). A mindful approach to mental retardation. J. Social Issues 56, 65-80.

Reschly, D. J. (1992). Mental Retardation: Conceptual Foundations, Definitional Criteria, and Diagnostic Operations. In Developmental Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical Assessment. (S. Hooper, G. W. Hynd and R. E. Mattison, Eds.) pp. 23-67. Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, New Jersey.

Rojahn, J., and Tasse, M. J. (1996). Psychopathology in mental retardation. In Manual of Diagnosis and Professional Practice in Mental Retardation. (J. W. Jacobson and J. A. Mulick, Eds.). American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Scheerenberger, R. C. (1983). A History of Mental Retardation. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company, Baltimore, Maryland.

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Funny Wiring Autism

Funny Wiring Autism

Autism is a developmental disorder that manifests itself in early childhood and affects the functioning of the brain, primarily in the areas of social interaction and communication. Children with autism look like other children but do not play or behave like other children. They must struggle daily to cope and connect with the world around them.

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