The Hippocampus Is Required For Trace Classical Nm Conditioning

The circuit just described includes all the brain structures required for the successful acquisition and retention of the CR in the delay classical conditioning paradigm. For example, in a well-trained animal, all the neural tissue above the level of the midbrain can be completely removed without affecting the retention and expression of the CR. In other words, removing the entire neocortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic system, including the hippocampus, has no effect on the CR.

For trace classical conditioning, these structures are also essential; however, the hippocampus is also required. If an interval of at least 500 msec separates the offset of the CS and the onset of the US, hippocampal lesions prevent CR acquisition and retention.

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