Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course

Human Anatomy and Physiology Premium Course

This is honestly the most complete ultimate home study course in human anatomy and physiology course you'll ever find on the Internet. With over 3000+ pages coupled with detailed illustrations and diagrams, it blows other similar courses away. Take a fascinating journey inside the mysterious hidden wonders of the body via pages of structural information and beautifully detailed anatomical images to find answers to questions. All structures and musculature are modeled and labeled including nerves, deep and superficial muscles, blood supply, skeletal structures and unique features for each individual body parts. Each topic is linked via references with test quizzes and this provides the best way to learn and understand human anatomy and the body.The Ultimate Home Study Course On Human Anatomy & Physiology: Cover Hundreds of Medical Topics Spanning Over 3000+ Pages. Award Winning Course Previously Only Sold To Medical Professionals. Each Lessons Ends With Key Facts, Revision Tests + Solutions To Reinforce Learning and Pinpoint Weaknesses. Detailed Illustrations With Labels To Aid Your Comprehension And Boost Your Retention. Idiot Proof Coverage Of Every Region & System In The Body and Identify Specific Muscle Groups and Their Functions. Simple Explanations of Cell Structures & Body Tissue and Review Key Anatomy & Physiology Concepts. Perfect For Medical Practitioners, Students, Educators, Anatomists, Sports Trainers, Injury Law Attorneys, Chiropractors, Therapists, Nurses and Paramedics. No Prior Medical Training Is Required. Read more...

Human Anatomy and Physiology Premium Course Summary


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Author: Dr. James Ross
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Why Send Cells Animals and Plants in Space

Studies using humans as subjects produce the most direct assessment of how spaceflight affects a particular aspect of human physiology or of the efficacy of a particular countermeasure. But there are a number of reasons why humans are often not viable or appropriate research subjects. First, from the ethical point of view, as in research on Earth, many experiments in space cannot be ethically performed on humans, such as those investigating embryonic development or genetic mutation.

Morphological Sex Estimation in Adults

Osteologists consider sexual dimorphism in the adult human skeleton (postpubertal individuals may also fall into this category) to be both well documented and less consistent than metric or measurable differences (4). Generally, males are larger and more robust, with heavier lower extremities (5,6). For example, in males the femoral heads and condyles are larger and the femoral midshaft is broader and thicker in cross -section than in females (5). Hrdlicka reported that males display longer and heavier muscle attachments, specifically the linea aspera of the femur (6). Boyd and Trevor (7) noted that regions of articulation can indicate sex, with males generally possessing larger joint surfaces however, these authors cautioned that this feature is best applied in an analysis of a series of skeletons (i.e., a population) and is not as useful in forensic contexts in which the population specifics are largely unknown. Walsh-Haney (8) suggested that it is necessary to avoid a general size...

Estimation of Stature

Stature or height estimation is defined in anthropological terms as the estimation of living height from skeletal remains, which, in this context, refers specifically to the lower extremity. Anthropologists thus distinguish between living stature and skeletal stature. Living stature is that measured in the living person and may reflect reported stature. Skeletal stature applies to stature estimated from whole or part of a human skeleton. (Some texts use the term cadaver stature to indicate a height taken from a deceased but fully fleshed individual.)

Forensically Significant Skeletal Anatomy

Nutrient Foramina

Fragmentary or partial remains, such as a single lower extremity, clearly pose a somewhat more daunting task than a more complete set of remains. Human anatomy is easily recognizable when complete, fleshed remains are involved. Skeletonized remains are less familiar and can be confused with nonhuman skeletal elements or even wood or rocks. The lower extremity is composed of the thigh, the knee, the leg, the ankle, and the foot. Basic familiarity with the overall skeletal anatomy of the femur, tibia, fibula, patella, and foot bones can aid investigators in determining exactly which segments are present (and of course, those that are missing) in medicolegal investigations involving lower extremity remains. This chapter is a summary of some of the more forensically The thigh contains the largest bone in the human body the femur. The proximal end of the femur consists of a rounded head made of spongy bone that forms the ball of the ball-and-socket hip joint (Fig. 1). This head is...

Working together to grow libraries in developing countries

The dictionary meets the standards of higher education and covers all main fields of life sciences by setting its primary focus on the vastly developing fields of cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, developmental biology, microbiology, genetics and also the fields of human anatomy, histology, pathology, physiology, zoology, and botany. The fields of ecology, paleontology, systematics, evolution, biostatistics, plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant histology, biometry and lab techniques have been sufficiently covered but in a more general manner. The latest Latin international anatomical terminology Terminologia Anatomica or TA has been fully incorporated and all anatomical entries have been given their international Latin TA synonym. The dictionary tends to be synchronic by ignoring obsolete and archaic

Review Of Key Anatomical Concepts

Axis Motion Anatomy Planes Motion

This section reviews several key concepts from human anatomy. A course in gross anatomy (macroscopic structures) is a typi cal prerequisite for the introductory biomechanics course. This section does not review all the bones, muscle, joints, and terms. Students and kinesiology professionals must continuously review and refresh their knowledge of anatomy. Anatomy describes the human body relative to the anatomical position. The anatomical position is approximated in Figure 3.1. The three spatial dimensions of the body correspond to the three anatomical planes frontal, sagittal, and transverse. Recall that a plane of motion is a particular spatial direction or dimension of motion, and an axis is an imaginary line about which a body rotates. The anatomical axes associated with motion in each of these planes are the an-tero-posterior, medio-lateral, and longitudinal axes. Knowing these planes and axes is important to understanding medical descriptions of motion or movements. Even more...

Intestine see Small Intestine Structure and Function Disorders Microbiota of the Intestine Probiotics Prebiotics

Thyroid has been known for some time, recent research on halogen compounds in living organisms suggests additional more complex roles including antibiotic and anticancer activity. Yet it is the critical importance of iodine in the formation of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) that makes any discussion of this element and human physiology of necessity bound up with a review of thyroid function. Element Abundance in Abundance in Abundance in oceans (ppm) Earth's crust human body (ppm) (mol)

Telomerase the Primary Target in Human Cells

Ends from degradation and fusion with other chromosomes. When telomeres are eroded below a certain threshold, they fail to protect chromosome ends, and this causes senescence and crisis. In contrast, rodent somatic cells possess stable and substantially longer telomeres. The control of telomere length offers an additional level of protection against tumor formation in animals with a higher life expectancy (for a review, see 17 ). Dogs are valuable animal models in drug testing, as they are less expensive than nonhuman primates and the results can be better extrapolated to human physiology. Cellular systems derived from dog primary cells are desirable to improve interpretation and study design. However, similar to human - and in contrast to rodent primary cells - dog telomerase activity also is tightly regulated 18 .

Development of the artificial throat

Adapted from 'Interaqtive alias of human anatomy, version 2.0'. Gastrointestinal system edition, Frank H. Netter, MD, Novartis. Fig. 12.4 The human throat. Adapted from 'Interaqtive alias of human anatomy, version 2.0'. Gastrointestinal system edition, Frank H. Netter, MD, Novartis.

Steps Toward International Consensus

An issue that is obvious in any consideration of how best to approach estimating human requirements is the need to achieve consensus on the best science-based approaches to determine them. Internationally, the diversity of requirement estimates might mislead one to assume there was significant variability in nutrient needs based on geographic location or genetic makeup. As more information regarding the role that genetic factors play in disease becomes available, the variability seen in actual requirements will diminish. There will continue to be a need to recognize and use information about nutrient bioavailability, which may well be different for diets based on different foods and staples and thus require different reference values for such varied situations, but human physiology is remarkably similar.

The process of flavour release

In addition to the influence of the food matrix and human physiology on flavour release, the physical properties of the aroma compounds themselves have a substantial impact. This is dependent on their partitioning from the bolus, through media such as saliva, on into the breath.

Relative importance of chewing and swallowing actions

Other real-time breath analyses without fixed eating protocols have shown eating events with regular peaks (corresponding to chewing), but, no larger, less frequent peaks which would correspond with swallowing actions (Grab and Gfeller 2000, Harvey et al. 2000, Linforth et al. 2004). High temporal resolution breath-by-breath analysis monitoring the intensity of release during chewing and a swallow with the same bolus, showed that the two events were equal in magnitude (Linforth et al. 2004). This may explain the lack of large peaks in release related to swallowing events. It is important to remember that in this case the events are conscious actions, which may alter release, and variations in human physiology combined with the frequency of chewing and swallowing events will also affect their significance.

History And Neuropsychological Findings

Although these groundbreaking human neurocog-nitive and animal studies alerted the medical community to the possibility of identifiable microscopic lesions and significant neurocognitive morbidity in some of the mild head injury population, the experimental designs utilized did not account for confounding factors. They also did not address issues related to differences in primate and human anatomy and physiology. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, studies in Texas, New York, California, and Washington attempted to control some of these confounding factors, such as previous head injury, substance abuse, and litigation, by selecting participants with no history of these aforementioned risk factors. This sample of patients with uncomplicated mild head injury demonstrated neurocognitive deficits 1 month postinjury in comparison to controls, with good recovery for almost all this population after 3 months.

The Role of the Anthropologist in Death Investigation

A qualified forensic anthropologist may compare antemortem and postmortem medical (non-dental) radiographs to establish a positive identification of the victim. Forensic radiologists are rare (13) fortunately, forensic anthropologists are experienced in the potential variations of the human skeleton, usually including its radiology (especially growth and development). These non-dental radiographic identifications are based on human variation. Just as fingerprints (or noses or ears) of individuals are inherently different, bones are also dissimilar. Anthropologists not only look for obvious differences and similarities, such as healed trauma and surgical intervention, but also for such aspects as bone contours, density, cortical thickness, and trabecular patterns. As in dental identifications, any differences that cannot be explained by the passage of time or perimortem trauma result in a non-identification. Comparison of postmortem biographic profiles with antemortem information aids...

In Defense of Current Animal Experimentation

Defenders of animal experimentation emphasize the use of animals in medical experimentation, particularly in areas such as diabetes and hypertension research, where the use of animals is claimed to have led to important medical breakthroughs (Paton U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment). They assert that statistics on the large numbers of animals used can be misleading because a great deal of animal experimentation is of a relatively harmless nature, for example, running a rat through a maze with a reward of food as encouragement for good performance rather than an electric shock as punishment for poor performance. They argue that animal experimentation is the only way to advance basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology and that it offers the best hope of finding cures for diseases such as cancer and AIDS. They also may point out that a considerable amount of animal experimentation is carried out in schools of veterinary medicine to find ways to treat diseases that...

Historical Perspectives

Finally, autoexperimentation has often been fostered when it appeared that certain researchers, by virtue of special training and experience, might extract significantly more from an experiment by participating than by observing. Data obtained uniquely through autoexperimentation proved critical, for example, in the development of protective clothing for ultrahigh-altitude airplane ejection, in studies of extreme acceleration and deceleration, in investigations of decompression sickness, and in studies of human physiology in space (Gibson and Harrison Dille Franklin and Sutherland).

Summary And Future Prospects

Recognized that the large scale cultivation of micro and macro algal forms could lead to controlled production systems, with high quality and safety, that would provide standard food material in abundant quantity for human needs. This lead to the development of large scale production ponds for the microalgae Chlorella, Spirulina, Dunaliella, and Haematococcus, leading to the annual production of over 20,000 tons of biomass which have been used as food supplements. While Chlorella has been mainly used in health foods, Spirulina is used both as a health food and as a source of nutraceuticals such as -carotene, vitamins, and minerals in therapeutic formulations. The health promoting qualities of algae are also being exploited for developing newer beneficial formulations for targeted applications. Microalgae such as Dunaliella and Haematococcus are also cultivated as a rich source of carotenoids, especially -carotene and astaxanthin. Undoubtedly these algal forms are the richest source of...

Geographic Distributions and Sociocultural Correlates

Belief in spirit possession is also widespread (Bourguignon, 1976). It appears in 74 of sample societies. Because of the difference between the near universality of institutionalized trance and the much lower incidence of possession beliefs, as well as other evidence, such as the widespread existence of nonsacred forms of trance, it may be argued that trance has its roots in human physiology, whereas possession beliefs, which are highly variable, are cultural phenomena. The human capacity for trancing (or dissociation) thus may be seen as raw material for cultural utilization.

The agedependent pressor effect of water

While individual patients with orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure had described improvement in upright blood pressure and functional capacity following ingestion of water, there was limited support for this concept based on current understanding of human physiology. We examined the effect of oral ingestion of water in patients with two forms of autonomic failure, pure autonomic failure (PAF) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) (Jordan et al 1999, 2000a,b). PAF and MSA patients often have severe autonomic dysfunction, but the site of pathophysiology is distinct. In PAF, there is loss of peripheral autonomic neuronal fibres, so that the intact CNS control mechanisms lack the peripheral 'wiring' needed to effect changes in autonomic outflow. In contrast, in patients with MSA, the autonomic failure is not so much characterized by destruction of peripheral sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, but rather by a failure ofCNS mechanisms to appropriately engage the largely intact...

Projects Integrating Anthropology and Epidemiology

Understanding how human bodies react to the presence, status, and power of others is another theme now receiving integrated attention. Studies of the influence of social support on human health have been joined by studies of the effects of social networks on human physiology and health. One critical question is how the environment and disease burden of the surrounding population influence individual disease risk. Strong evidence that poverty is a cause of sickness and mortality is being buttressed by evidence that the widening gap between rich and poor is itself a major cause of poor health and death (Farmer 2003, Kawachi et al. 1999, Nguyen and Peschard 2003). This is of particular interest to anthropologists because both pathogens and ideas about pathogens are transmitted through populations. The tools and theories to understand these phenomena must be able to move between the intracellular and the interpersonal, tracing causal relationships among pathogens, behavior, power, and...

Difficulties with the WHO Definitions

An account of the type of abnormality necessary for the notion of impairment to be applicable is needed. What is normal human physiology, psychology, anatomic structure, and function The topic is vast and controversial, and it is easy to go wrong.


Behavior (Lombroso, 1887), Bertillonage (human identification using anthropometric measurements), and early anatomists and physicians called upon to examine human remains. Stewart (1979) has suggested that Thomas Dwight (1843-1911) deserves the title of Father of Forensic Anthropology in the United States for his 1878 essay on medical-legal identification of the human skeleton and other works (Dwight, 1878). Other notable early contributors were Jeffries Wyman (1814-1874), George Dorsey (1869-1931) and Harris Hawthorne Wilder (1864-1928) (Stewart, 1979 Ubelaker, 1999b).


Certification in the ABFA requires a Doctoral degree in Anthropology with an emphasis on Physical Anthropology and evidence of advanced study of human osteology, human anatomy, and dental anthropology. Such a requirement strongly suggests that forensic anthropologists receive their formal training in a PhD granting Department of Anthropology with an emphasis on the specialized areas mentioned. Training is also useful in archeological recovery techniques, appropriate legal issues, related areas of forensic science, and evidence handling. Experience with actual forensic cases is extremely important and usually is obtained by working with a practicing forensic anthropologist. Courses, workshops, fellowships, and internships are also available to


Follow up studies of children conceived through assisted reproductive technologies as they grow older will answer another critical question Are human embryos also programmable during early development However, this will prove logistically challenging and raises ethical issues over the rights of children understanding their genetic heritage and the method by which they were conceived. Thus long-term, large cohort studies on adults conceived through assisted reproduction are likely to remain unrealistic. Studies will increasingly focus on the mechanisms of embryonic programming as more descriptive work exploring outcomes of altered early environments in animal models come to light. This research emphasis will furthermore inform which aspects of human physiology might most fruitfully be interrogated after either in vitro manipulation or alteration of in vivo environment.


Biological, cognitive, affective, social and psychological bases of health and disease are bodies of knowledge that, when integrated with the knowledge of biological, cognitive-affective, social and psychological bases of behavior, constitute the distinctive knowledge base of Clinical Health Psychology. This includes a broad understanding of biology, pharmacology, anatomy, human physiology and pathophys-iology, and psychoneuroimmunology. Clinical health psychologists also have knowledge of how learning, memory, perception, cognition, and motivation influence health behaviors, are affected by physical illness injury disability, and can affect response to illness injury disability. Knowledge of the impact of social support, culture, physician-patient relationships, health policy and the organization of health care delivery systems on health and help-seeking is also fundamental as is knowledge of diversity and minority health issues, individual differences in coping, emotional and...


Biotechnology particularly has focused on disease patho-physiology to uncover the secrets of human physiology and disease. Technological advances, such as in analysis of molecules and intracellular mechanisms, and whole new technologies in research methods are advancing these discoveries as well. Venture capital has been available to fund these biotech companies for these biological advances. Some examples of how biotechnology has impacted target discovery and product development are shown here (Fig. 4.14). As we have discussed, targets frequently are

Center Of Gravity

Biomechanics High Jump Center Mass

The center of gravity of the human body can move around, because joints allow the masses of body segments to move. In the anatomical position, the typical location of a body's center of gravity in the sagittal plane is at a point equivalent to 57 and 55 of the height for males and females, respectively (Hay & Reid, 1982). Can you name some structural and weight distribution differences between the genders that account for this general difference Knowing where the force of gravity acts in various postures of the human body allows biomechanists to study the kinetics and stability of these body positions. There are two main methods used to calculate the center of gravity of the human body, and both methods employ the equations of static equilibrium. One lab method, which requires a person to hold a certain body position, is called the reaction change or reaction board method. The other method used in research is called the segmental method. The segmental method uses an-thropometric...

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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