Online Hypnosis Training Course

Black Ops Hypnosis 2

Cameron Crawford is the name of the hypnosis master who developed a full unique hypnosis course called Black Ops Hypnosis 2, also known as underground hypnosis or covert hypnosis. He worked closely with a guy who he only discloses as the Professor for two years to develop the most controversial and effective secrets of mind control. He is the only protg of the Professor and nowadays known to be among the most powerful experts of mind control in the entire world. The actual product is basically a course on various techniques of hypnosis. It comes in a series of training audio tracks which explain the mind control and hypnosis techniques in extreme details. It actually a first of its kind to hit the public market and the reviews and testimonials that are rolling back in are very positive. That can only be as a result of how effective and powerful the techniques are. There are 8 featured tracks to describe the various techniques of Dark Side Hypnosis. This course is basically for anyone with a need to get a deeper understanding of how the human brain functions on a social level. Its only intended for good use and by no means should it be used negatively. More here...

Black Ops Hypnosis 2 Summary

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The Art of Stage Hypnosis

The program The Art of Stage Hypnosis is all you need to learn stage hypnosis from A to Z. The author of this great program named Jason Gold and he has an extensive experience in stage hypnosis. Jason put a great effort to gather and explain all the tips and tricks he learned though his stage performance and put it all together in this program. You can hypnotize between one to twenty people in any social gathering not just on stage. In the first chapter Jason makes a small comparison between the stage hypnosis and hypnotherapy to emphasize that stage hypnosis is much easier and most people can learn to hypnotize number of audience that they meet for the first time. I found that this course covers the stage hypnosis perfectly from every angle. You will learn the fundamentals and the tricks as well as the most valuable business tips to become a full time stage hypnotist. In later chapters the author gives the most rapid inductions to achieve instant Trans you can even hypnotize the subject in the street and in few seconds if you want. I want to mention also that this program is a treasure of inductions that any beginner can learn and practice. I recommend this book for anyone wants to fulfill the childhood dream of becoming a hypnotist. More here...

The Art of Stage Hypnosis Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Jason Gold
Official Website: www.theartofstagehypnosis.com
Price: $37.00

Cognitive Developmental Hypnotherapy

The indirect hypnotherapeutic techniques developed by Milton Erickson may be especially useful for addressing maladaptive core cognitive schemas. The basic assumption is that hypnosis may be especially useful in assessing and modifying core cognitions around the important domains of personal identity, self-concept, and dysfunctional tacit rules, rather than by addressing explicitly more peripheral behaviors and attitudes (Dowd, 2000). Erickson considered the unconscious to be a vast storehouse of positive skills and tacit knowledge which serves as a fundamental regulator of human behavior. Because of its nonverbal nature, hypnotic imagery and related emotional processing may be useful in modifying tacit knowledge structures, which are often pre-verbal and implicitly learned. The nonverbal nature of these hypnotic techniques may allow them to access directly the preverbal tacit cognitions in core schemas. In addition, because of the very indirectness of these techniques (which makes...

Hypnosishypnotism Theories

The British surgeon James Braid (17951860) is credited by some writers to be the discoverer of hypnosis (Braid actually first introduced the term hypnosis in 1852), and others hold that the German physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) should be recognized as the founding father of modern hypnosis (which Mesmer called animal magnetism). It was Braid's idea that hypnosis is really nothing more than suggestion, and his significance for psychology is that he took the phenomenon out of the area of mystical explanation and placed it on a physical basis (cf., special process hypothesis - holds that an individual's behavior when under hypnosis is different qualitatively than that of when the person is not under hypnosis). Mesmer applied the principles of magnetism developed in physics to the problems of mental health his method was to have patients grasp metal rods that protruded from a tub of water filled with iron filings, join hands with other patients, and wait for Mesmer to lay...

Hypnosis

Hypnosis is a trance state that combines a heightened inner awareness with a diminished awareness of one's surroundings. It is suggested that hypnosis may modify the cortical centers and the perception of dyspnea, however, the available studies are primarily with asthma patients. Dyspnea decreased in one patient with severe COPD who received hypnotically-induced relaxation and biofeedback in an effort to decrease his dyspnea during periods of anxiety.83 Another 16 patients with asthma had a decrease in their dyspnea from pre- to immediately post-hypnosis and the decrease was sustained 30 minutes after hypnosis.84 Seventeen children and adolescents who had chronic dyspnea with normal lung function that was not responsive to medical therapy were taught self-hypnosis in one or two sessions. Thirteen of the children reported their dyspnea and associated symptoms had resolved within one month of their final hypnosis session. Eleven believed that resolution of their dyspnea was attributable...

Maintenance Of Anaesthesia

Maintenance of anaesthesia involves constant vigilance of the patient's state of hypnosis, analgesia and paralysis, as well as attention to the condition of the airway, ventilation and cardiovascular system. Although no absolute monitor of depth of anaesthesia exists, several attempts have been made to provide some indication. One such monitor is bis-pectral index (BIS) monitoring, which is a mathematical interpretation of electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns to give a number between 0 and 100. The lower numbers refer to anaesthetised patients and higher numbers are in awake patients. Anaesthesia (hypnosis) for premedication, induction agents and opioid analgesics, a properly conducted anaesthetic following these principles should produce hypnosis (see below).

Induction of Anesthesia

Opioid agents, which do not reliably induce rapid hypnosis. These doses are appropriate for healthy, well-hydrated patients. The dose for critically ill patients, as well as for those who have received other agents, such as opioid analgesics, should be adjusted downward accordingly. All of these drugs are appropriate for this indication however, the profiles and side effects of each differ somewhat, as discussed below.

Emotion Memory And Judgment

In sum, a wide variety of studies have demonstrated that experimentally manipulated facial expressions affect memory and judgment. These effects parallel the effects of other kinds of emotion manipulations and indicate that expression manipulations produce the same sorts of emotional effects as, for example, succeeding and failing, listening to music, and perhaps even undergoing hypnosis. Thus, these results argue against Reisen-zein's speculation that expressions do not affect emotional experience itself. These studies also add to the array of findings that show that changing expressions does change emotional experience, as James and self-perception theory had predicted.

Changing Cognitive Contents

These (sometimes called cognitive events) are the automatic self-statements clients (as well as everyone else) say to themselves constantly, such as I'll never complete this task or What a dumb thing to do They might be considered the what of thinking. Self-statements such as these are considered by Araoz (1985) to be a form of ongoing negative self-hypnosis. These cognitive events are relatively easy to access with judicious therapist questioning (e.g., What was going through your mind just now ). Using standard cognitive therapy techniques, alternative, more adaptive self-statements can be developed jointly by the therapist and client. Clients are then placed in a hypnotic trance and first instructed to say the maladaptive self-statements aloud (or to themselves), then say the more adaptive self-statements. This is repeated until they can easily say and focus on the adaptive self-statements. The repetition involved in this can become rather boring for therapists but the technique...

Suggestions For The Future

It is important that cognitive hypnotherapy be applied to a greater range of psychological problems, especially personality disorders. It has much in common with Mindfulness Meditation (Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002) as well as other forms of meditation, even prayer (Dowd, in press). Many of these interventions are ancient and the similarities and differences among them should be more fully explored and tested. The research outcomc literature on these imagery meditation-based interventions is sparse indeed and research should be conducted not only to test their efficacy but their differential efficacy relative to other forms of cognitive-behavior therapy and therapeutic approaches.

Additional Resources

Counselors American Association of Pastoral Counselors American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors and Therapists American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work American Counseling Association American Mental Health Counselors Association American Music Therapy Association American Psychoanalytic Association American Psychological Association American School Counselor Association Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards Australian Association of Social Workers Australian Psychological Society British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy British Association of Social Workers British Columbia Association of Clinical Counsellors California Association for Counseling and Development California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists Canadian Counselling Association Canadian Psychological Association Canadian Traumatic Stress Network Reseau Canadien du Stress Traumatique European Association for Body-Psychotherapy European Federation of Psychologists'...

Moral Nihilism Doctrine Of

Worlds and collective ideologies may involve role-playing for instruction and information rather than for therapy) physiodrama (blends physical conditioning with psychodrama) axiodrama (deals with understanding ethics and philosophical issues such as truth, beauty, and justice) hypnodrama (combines psycho-drama with hypnosis) psychomu-sic psychodance (integrates spontaneous music and or dance into the psychodrama procedure) group psychodrama (in which all the actors are in the therapy group) and family groups (in which difficult familial and domestic issues and conflicts are acted out). See also CATHARSIS THEORY FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY PSYCHOPA-THOLOGY, THEORIES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, THEORY OF. REFERENCES

The Nullification of the Supply and Demand Relationship

Another instance of demand creation, which disappeared as rapidly as it had emerged, was the so-called recovery of repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse, especially when it ostensibly involved incest. Many authorities believe the recovered memory was actually created by the hypnosis and other techniques designed to elicit it. During its heyday psychotherapists treating recovered memories proliferated and a significant number of accused persons (many of them the ostensible victims' fathers) went to prison, only to be subsequently found innocent on appeal, or to have their sentences commuted. Several psychotherapists have lost their licenses, and the courts have effectively put an end to the treatment of this syndrome.

Treatment And Prognosis

Most conversion disorders are brief and quickly resolve. Favorable prognostic factors are (1) lack of other psychiatric disorders, (2) sudden severe stress as a precipitating cause, and (3) absence of medical problems. Some cases are resistant and require hypnosis or amobarbital interview for resolution. This should be coordinated by the primary care provider. Lorazepam has also been found helpful in management of this condition. Approximately 25 percent of patients will have another episode over the ensuing 1 to 6 years, which may involve the same or a new symptom complex.2 0

Symbolism Imagery In

Dowd (1997) asserted that adding a hypnotherapy component to treatment may enhance CBT interventions by minimizing avoidance and thereby increasing the patient's capacity to confront and habituate to the experienced or anticipated noxious events. An array of guided imagery techniques have been used as part of cognitive hypnotherapy as a means of modifying dysfunctional behaviors, as well as negative automatic images, maladaptive beliefs, and core schemas. Such imagery techniques may include evocative imagery, replacement and coping imagery, age regression imagery, desensitization and flooding imagery, visual cognitive rehearsal, imaginary dialogues with significant others, and modification of distorted images relating to past memories.

Naturalistic Examination Stress

To improve upon some of these shortcomings, Kiecolt-Glaser and Glaser conducted a comprehensive series of studies in which they examined the immuno-modulatory effects of a commonplace, everyday stressor academic examinations. In their standard protocol, medical students were examined at two time points during their first 2 years of medical school first during a lower stress baseline period in which exams were not being given and then a month later during examinations. Results revealed that exam stress was associated with decreased NK activity, decreased lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens, and decreased production of various cytokines. In addition, exam periods were associated with greater self-reports of illness (primarily upper respiratory infections) suggesting that the observed immune changes may have health consequences. Students' levels of plasma albumin and transferrin fell within normal ranges during the exams, suggesting that immune changes were not due to poor nutrition...

The Cognitive Hypnotherapeutic Treatment Of Psychological Disorders

Cognitive hypnotherapy has been applied to many problems, including anxiety and phobias, stress-related disorders, depression, and habit disorders, as well as general life-enhancing interventions (Dowd, 2000). More recently, it has been applied to pain reduction (Dowd, 2001) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (Dowd, 2003). In treating all these (and other) disorders, the model is the same. First the therapist must identify (in collaboration with the client as much as possible) the cognitive contents, cognitive processes, and cognitive structures. Then the therapist develops hypnotic routines, either direct or indirect, to address the cognitive dysfunctions. These are used while the client is in a trance. In the case of depression, the therapist may wish to use a form of alert hypnosis (Golden, Dowd, & Friedberg, 1987) in which hypnosis is used to energize, rather then relax, the client. Life-enhancing interventions also possess an energizing aspect. Why should anyone use hypnosis...

Freuds Theory Of Personality

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) had early associations with the Austrian physician Josef Breuer (1842-1925) and the French physician Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), who gave him an appreciation of the value of the talking cure, catharsis, and hypnosis for treating hysterical neuroses and, also, of the sexual etiology of neuroses. These experiences with Breuer and Charcot served as the basis for the development of the Freudian theory of personality and the method called psychoanalysis, formally initiated in 1895 (cf., basic rule - the fundamental tenet of psychoanalysis that the analyst must aid the patient to put spontaneous feelings, thoughts, and memories into words and, thereby, bring unconscious impulses to the surface for analysis). For over 40 years, Freud examined the structure and function of one of his most important concepts, the unconscious (cf., perception-consciousness system - Freud's hypothesized subsystem of the mental apparatus characterized by consciousness receiving...

Relevance Of The Autonomic Innervation Of The Pancreatic Islet

Parasympathetic activation of islet hormone secretion is of importance in two conditions. First, it is involved in the cephalic phase of insulin secretion during food intake. This is the rapid and early increase in insulin secretion that is seen during the first 3-4 min after the initiation of food intake before any nutrient has reached the circulation to affect islet function. This phase is triggered by sensory mechanisms involving afferent pathways activated by olfactory, visual, gustatory, and oropharyngeal mechanical receptors. The afferent pathways are then integrated centrally, eliciting stimulation of the efferent pathways activating the secretion of insulin. A cephalic phase regulation of insulin secretion has been verified by demonstrations of insulin secretion (1) during sham feeding, i.e., feeding without food actually entering the gastrointestinal tract, (2) during imaginary food ingestion under hypnosis, (3) after the sight, smell, and expectation of food, and (4) after...

Theoretical Bases

Iorally oriented control method, differing from overt behavior control only in the observability of the events. Coverant control is therefore an aspect of behavioral psychology, not cognitive psychology. However, cover-ant control is based heavily on the imagery process or, in some cases, hypnosis and hypnotic imagery. Indeed, it operates primarily on the use of imagining because this provides the vehicle by which the private events are assessed and the reinforcing or punishing consequences are administered. Essentially, the imagery processes act as mediating stimuli between the reinforcing or punishing consequence and the antecedent event.

Batesons Vibratory Theory

Term behavior therapy originated in a 1953 report by O. Lindsley, B. F. Skinner, and H. Solomon that described their use of operant conditioning principles with psychotic patients. Later, A. Lazarus (1958) used the term in referring to J. Wolpe's application of the technique of reciprocal inhibition to neurotic patients, and H. Eysenck (1959) used behavior therapy to refer to the application of modern learning theory to neurotic patients' behavior. The early usage of the term behavior therapy was linked consistently to learning theory it was called conditioning therapy, also, which had as its goal the elimination of nonadaptive behavior and the initiation and strengthening of adaptive habits. L. Krasner (1971) asserts that 15 factors within psychology coalesced during the 1950s and 1960s to create and form the behavior therapy theoretical approach the concept of behaviorism in experimental psychology instrumental operant conditioning research the treatment procedure of reciprocal...

Dissociation and Conversion

Integration in the face of extreme trauma. Traumatic experience initiates the separation or dissociation of memories from the main body of knowledge by an amnesic barrier. Although these dissociated memories or 'fixed ideas'' are prevented from entering consciousness by the amnesic barrier, they may be automatically activated by external events. The activation of dissociated memories in this way is responsible for the generation of hysterical symptoms (Fig. 2) that, because they are produced without conscious control, are essentially nonvolitional phenomena. According to Janet, this automatic activation of fixed ideas is a process of suggestion, with the underlying deficit in attention being akin to a state of hypnosis.

Cancer Patients Psychotherapy

Affective expression The direct ventilation of emotion. hypnosis A state of relaxed, attentive, focused concentration Many group and individual psychotherapy programs teach specific coping skills designed to help patients reduce cancer-related symptoms such as anxiety, anticipatory nausea and vomiting, and pain. Techniques used include specific self-regulation skills such as self-hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, and progressive muscle relaxation. Hypnosis is widely used for pain and anxiety control in cancer to attenuate the experience of pain and suffering, and to allow painful emotional material to be examined. Group sessions involving instruction in self-hypnosis provide an effective means of reducing pain and anxiety, and consolidating the major themes of discussion in the group.

Cbt And The Trauma Memory

Strongest support is found for the treatments that combine cognitive and behavioral techniques. Imaginal exposure to trauma memories and hypnosis are techniques most likely to affect the intrusive symptoms of PTSD, while cognitive and psychodynamic approaches may better address

Review of cessation studies

Grade A In a comprehensive systematic review of 188 randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of a wide range of interventions aimed at helping people to stop smoking, it was concluded that simple advice, even on one occasion only, given by a doctor in general or family practice or in a hospital clinic to all smokers who consulted, resulted in sustained cessation of about 2 and that additional encouragement and support (additional visits, exhaled CO measurement, letters, etc.) further enhances this effect.28 Whether similar interventions delivered by nurses are equally effective remains uncer-tain,29 although there is evidence that nurse support, subsequent to doctor advice, can enhance the effect of this.30 This comprehensive review25 also endorsed the use of nicotine replacement therapy but concluded that a variety of other smoking cessation interventions - hypnosis, acupuncture, aversion therapy, and pharmacologic agents other than nicotine, which are sometimes advocated - have

California Holistic New Age Healing Center

English-Lueck (1990) conducted an ethnography of the holistic health New Age movement in Paraiso (pseudonym), a California community consisting largely of white upper-middle- and upper-class residents. Despite its relative ethnic homogeneity, Paraiso's residents adhered to a variety of lifestyles. These included millionaires, university students, and members of unconventional congregations, such as the Unitarian Universalist Church, the Unity School of Christianity, and the Church of Religious Science. Paraiso has numerous self-help groups, 36 schools that offer workshops and lectures on alternative medicine, and three schools that offer training in various alternative therapies, including massage, acupuncture, and hypnosis. The local community college, the university extension program, the YMCA, herbal stores, a Taoist sanctuary, and a Yogic Institute ashram also offer workshops on alternative therapies.

Behavioral Interventions

Behavioral approaches to pain management refer to skills such as relaxation training, pain monitoring, activity scheduling and monitoring, distraction techniques, assertiveness training, and problem solving. To provide some immediate relief from pain, the client can be taught a series of relaxation techniques early in therapy, including deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation (tensing and relaxing different muscle groups in the body), guided imagery (e.g., imagining a safe place, a place that is free from pain and stress beach or nature scenes), hypnosis (e.g., imagining relaxation moving into different parts of the body), and or biofeedback.

Nonpharmacologic Modalities Cognitive Behavioral and Physical Therapies for Analgesia and Anxiolysis

Traditionally, nonpharmacologic techniques of pain management in the ED are limited to application of heat or cold, and immobilization and elevation of injured extremities. Other techniques may prove to have a role in the ED and post-ED setting. Among these are cognitive-behavioral techniques, which are effective in reducing pain and anxiety, may control mild pain when used alone, and also enhance patient satisfaction. These techniques include reassurance, explanation, relaxation, music, psychoprophylaxis, biofeedback, guided imagery, hypnosis, and distraction. They are a useful adjunct to pharmacologic management of moderate to severe pain.1 Successful application of these therapies requires a cognitively intact patient and skilled personnel, but many of the techniques require only a few minutes to teach the patient.

Relaxation Therapies

Since the late 1950s a host of formal relaxation therapies including progressive muscle relaxation training, autogenic training, imagery training, biofeedback, and hypnosis have all been used to treat insomnia. Common to these approaches is their focus on such factors as performance anxiety and bedtime arousal, which often perpetuate sleep difficulties. Regardless of the specific relaxation strategy employed, treatment entails teaching the insomnia sufferer a formal exercise or set of exercises designed to reduce anxiety and arousal at bedtime so that sleep initiation is facilitated. Typically multiple weekly or biweekly treatment sessions are required to teach relaxation skills that the patient is encouraged to practice at home in order to gain mastery and facility with self-relaxation. The goal of all such treatments is that of assisting the insomnia sufferer in achieving sufficient relaxation skills so that insomnia resulting from sleep-related performance anxiety and bedtime...

Relaxation Techniques

For those finding it difficult to achieve this level of relaxation, many techniques are available. Physicians will frequently respond to meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, selective awareness, self-hypnosis, somatics, yoga, breath control, and biofeedback. Many techniques have audiotapes available to help guide one conveniently through the learning process. For some, religious beliefs and activities may fulfill the need for relaxation. The important common denominator is quiet time that allows for personal reflection, integration, and planning.

Achs Lawsprinciplestheory

Ach's principles concerning determining tendencies in experiments contain what are, perhaps, the most important aspects of his work for present-day experimentalists. Ach showed that there were unconscious influences operating on participants' behavior during experiments, including factors such as the instructions given by the experimenter to the participants. The determining tendencies were thought to be known by some means other than the participants' introspections. An example of determining tendency is given by Boring, Langfeld, and Weld (1939, p. 389), who describe an experiment on hypnosis. After the subject (the word participant seems to be the favored term to use today in experimental contexts) was hypnotized, the suggestion was made that after waking, two cards with two digits on each would be shown. For the first card, the person was to give the sum of the digits, and for the second card, to give the difference between the two digits. Upon waking from...

Anesthetics

Ketamine is highly lipid soluble and has a pKa of 7.5, accounting for the rapid (within 1 min) onset of hypnosis following IV injection. Peak brain and plasma concentrations develop within 1 min rapid redistribution to peripheral tissues results in a mean hypnosis time of 6 min (1.0 mg kg) to 10 min (2.0 mg kg). Ketamine is metabolized by the hepatic P-450 system to several active metabolites, the chief among which is norketamine. Norketamine appears within 2 min of a bolus injection and is one-tenth to one-third less potent than the parent drug, but does not appear to penetrate the CNS in quantities sufficient to produce hypnosis. Subsequent metabolites are conjugated and renally excreted, but, because they are much less active, the dose appears not to require adjustment in patients with renal insufficiency. Drugs which induce the P-450 system increase the metabolism of ketamine, whereas inhibitors prolong the duration of effect.

Cbt For Pain

For example, Liossi and Hatira (1999) recently compared the effects of hypnosis and CBT as pain management interventions for pediatric cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirations. Their results indicated that both treatment protocols, as compared to a no-treatment control condition, were effective in reducing pain and pain-related anxiety.

Behavior

Hypnosis Janet's proposal that hysterical and hypnotic phenomena share similar psychological mechanisms also continues to attract support. In line with this hypothesis, many studies have shown that individuals with somatoform and conversion illness tend to exhibit high levels of suggestibility. Moreover, recent imaging studies using positron emission tomography have provided limited evidence indicating that similar neuroanatomical substrates may be involved in both conversion and hypnotic paralysis. Currently, however, the link between hypnosis and somatoform illness is still largely theoretical further empirical evidence based on larger sample sizes is required before firm conclusions can be drawn in this regard.

Nondrug treatments

In older children who are able to cooperate, the use of relaxation therapy, distraction, and guided imagery (hypnosis) maybe helpful in reducing anxiety associated with chronic dyspnoea.18 Another aspect to adjusting to chronic breathlessness in children involves educating the child and parents about the role of activity pacing in response to changes in the child's ability to play and be active. Activity pacing may involve encouraging children to learn to schedule activities when they are less breathless, when medications are at their peak effectiveness, or to take a prn dose for activities known to cause breathlessness. Such activity pacing requires taking a thorough history and adapting the child's daily schedule accordingly (Personal communication, D. Drouin 2004).

Final Considerations

Finally, paradoxical procedures are those that occur in systems that have no mechanism for their explanation. In the future, it may be assumed that this loosely organized body of procedures that are subsumed under the aegis of therapeutic paradox will be individually incorporated into more cohesive systems. In fact, as is the case with any effective technique, whether systematic desensitization or hypnosis, paradoxical procedures are best employed within an organized, effective

Anaphylaxis

Modern anaesthesia requires the use of several drugs to provide hypnosis, analgesia and muscular relaxation and thus, in view of the large number of patients receiving anaesthesia annually it is not surprising that untoward reactions occasionally occur. An adverse reaction to drugs administered by the intravenous route, rather than by inhalation, is likely to be more severe because the absorption of drugs across mucous membranes is relatively slow and may offer a degree of immunological protection.

Management

Parents are often reassured to know that arousal disorders generally improve with age and resolve before or during teenage years, probably in part because of the reduced amount of slow-wave sleep. For patients with infrequent episodes, reassurance combined with good sleep hygiene, adequate amounts of nighttime sleep, and safety measures may be sufficient. Windows should be locked and sharp objects and toys should be removed from the bedroom floor. For potentially injurious behaviors, or if the activity is excessively disruptive to the family, bedtime doses of 20-100 mg of imipramine, 2-5 mg of diazepam, or 0.5-2 mg of clonazepam are usually beneficial. The medications can be taken nightly for several months and then gradually discontinued, or reinstituted if the behaviors recur. Counseling and psychiatric evaluation or treatment are helpful if family stress or psychopathology are contributing factors. For some patients, hypnosis or behavioral treatments may provide some value (Lask,...

Zolpidem

Zolpidem is an imidazopyrine that acts at the benzodiazepine receptor complex of the GABAa receptor, to produce anxiolysis and sedation. It is selective for ra1 receptor subtype producing hypnosis without the ataxia or other ra2 effects. The effects are reversed by flumazenil. Zolpidem is rapidly absorbed with a bio-availability of 70 . Concentrations peak at about 1-3 h and it is 93 protein-bound. Zolpidem is metabolized to inactive metabolites in the liver with a half life of 2.4 H.

Anton O Kris

The technique of free association, considered by many people the most important contribution made by psychoanalysis, the methodological key to its results as Sigmund Freud stated in 1931, remains central to psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Although it has a history in literature and philosophy dating to classical antiquity, free association as an investigative and psychotherapeutic method was Freud's invention in the 1890s. It derived from the cathartic chimney sweeping use of unrestricted speech, under hypnosis, by one of the patients of Freud's senior colleague, Josef Breuer. Freud gradually modified the method of free association, discarding massage and hypnosis that were its earlier companions, eventually following the patient's lead rather than introducing a subject of his own. Focusing on the patient's introspections, with the requirement that the patient speak without critical judgment, he created a systematic means to infer unconscious thoughts and feelings....

Covert Modeling

Covert behaviors can serve a variety of functions. First, they may act as antecedents of other behaviors. They become the covert cues for subsequent behavior. For example, fear and avoidance of many objects are due to covert images of what might happen if one is placed in the fear-producing situation. The most prominent examples of changing the cuing functions of these covert images are systematic desensitization and flooding or implosion therapy. Both of these procedures have been shown by research to be effective in modifying subsequent behavior, though probably not for the reasons originally thought. In systematic desen-sitization, relaxation is used to change the covert cues that arouse the fear and avoidance so that it is no longer aroused to the same degree, beginning with covert cues low on the anxiety-producing hierarchy and gradually moving higher. In flooding, one begins at the top of the fear-producing hierarchy and uses repeated exposure through imagery to the...

Thomas Dowd

Keywords hypnosis, hypnotherapy, imagery Cognitive hypnotherapy uses the developmental themes present in latter-day cognitive therapy, the imagery work of J. S. Beck and Ellis, and hypnotherapeutic techniques, especially those of the indirect hypnotic approach developed by Milton Erickson. In developing the cognitive hypnotherapeutic model, I followed the tripartite model of cognition presented by Meichenbaum and Gilmore (1984), along with the Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) of Young (1999). J. S. Beck (1995) devoted a chapter to imagery work in cognitive therapy. She identified several imagery techniques that are similar to hypnotic procedures, including jumping ahead in time (age progression), distancing (telescope technique), and changing the image (memory substitution). Ellis (1993) has also used imagery in rational emotive imagery (RET). It was after reviewing their work that I decided to write an extended treatise on cognitive hypnotherapy (Dowd, 2000).

Therapy

Therapy sessions focus on helping the client learn (1) cognitive restructuring skills (i.e., identifying, evaluating, and modifying negative automatic thoughts and beliefs) related to pain and emotional distress, (2) relaxation techniques (i.e., deep abdominal breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, hypnosis, and or biofeedback) and other behavioral strategies (e.g., pain and activity monitoring, distraction, assertiveness training), and (3) problem-solving skills to cope with pain and other psychosocial stressors. The course of CBT typically starts with a focus on pain management and then moves to other concerns or issues (assuming pain management is the primary goal of therapy). The primary target for change is clients' negative, unrealistic cognitions about pain, the consequences of having pain, and other life stresses. Therapists also help clients identify

Hypnotherapy Healing

Hypnotherapy Healing

Loosely explained, hypnotherapy is an exercise of therapy which induces a deep relaxation state of body and mind and then uses this state of mind to introduce ideas or images into the consciousness.

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