Discover The Secret Of Immortality

Discover The Secret Of Immotality

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Finally we should note the possibility of therapies that would extend life, perhaps even to the point at which humans might become in some sense immortal. This, albeit futuristic dimension of stem cell research raises important issues that are worth serious consideration. Many scientists now believe that death is not inevitable that that the process whereby cells seem to be programmed to age and die is a contingent accident of human development which can in principle and perhaps in fact be reversed and part of that reversal may flow from the regenerative power of stem cells. Immortality has been discussed at length elsewhere but we should, before turning to the ethics of stem cell research and therapy note one important possible consequence of life extending procedures.

Aims and scope of the volume

Perhaps one of the most important things to remember - and one that should cut through much of the angst and hype currently surrounding ES cells - is that they are normal cells cells in tissue culture. They do, however, have distinct and useful properties. They may be maintained in a nontransformed state of immortality they represent an early stage in embryonic development they are plur-ipotential and their descendants may differentiate into virtually any type of embryonic or adult cell. It is worth emphasizing that this is a particular developmental cell state, and is not the same as being undifferentiated. In earlier years of study of mouse teratocarcinoma stem cells there was some debate about their true origin. Did they represent germ cells or early embryonic cells This is still a debate today (6). Embryonic stem cells do share many characteristics and cell type markers (but not all (6)) with primordial germ cells, but perhaps the important point is that there is...

Advantages And Principles Of The Sage Methodology

Major advantages of the SAGE method are (i) that the information generated is digital in format (ii) that the data obtained can be directly compared with data generated from any other laboratory or with data available in public databases and (iii) the information generated is virtually immortal, and it has the advantage of being constantly updated and subject to reinterpretation, since the more we learn on the identification of new transcripts, the more complete and accurate the SAGE datasets become.

Illness Narratives in Clinical Medicine

The idea of narrating one's way to better health is certainly nothing new. Freud's patient recognized this when she uttered the immortal phrase talking cure. However, the way in which narratives are viewed, and the relationship between doctor talk and patient talk does appear to be different in the postmodern era. Instead of treating patient narratives as a treasure trove, a mysterious place where therapists can discover secrets buried in the patient's subconscious, the emphasis is now on jointly creating appropriate new stories (Launer, 1998). In this process, form is emphasized over content as long as the story coheres and makes sense to the patient, there is little concern over his or her difficult past. For example, in discussing recent research on adult attachment disorder, Holmes (1998) describes a system for classifying patient narratives into four domains secure-autonomous, insecure-dismissive, insecure-enmeshed and disorganized and notes that admission to the first category...

Some Alternative Medicines

There is no life, truth, intelligence, nor substance in matter. All is infinite Mind and its infinite manifestation, for God is All-in-all. Spirit is immortal Truth matter is mortal error. Spirit is the real and eternal matter is the unreal and temporal. Spirit is God, and man is His image and likeness. Therefore man is not material he is spiritual. (Eddy, p. 469)

Creating a Professional Will

Nless a therapist is invulnerable and immortal, it is a good idea to prepare a professional will. One focus of this book is the therapist as human. Part of our humanity is our mortality and our vulnerability. Unpleasant as it is to think about, all of us are vulnerable to the unexpected. At any time a drunk driver, a stroke, a mugging, a heart attack, a fire, a plane crash, and countless other misfortunes may bring our life to a sudden and unexpected end. It is an ethic of both personal and professional responsibility to take our mortality and vulnerability into account in our planning.

Hybrid Cells and Differentiated Phenotypes

Malignant cells with nonmalignant partners resulted in the formation of nonmalignant hybrid cells in which malignancy reappeared with subsequent chromosome loss. Clearly, such a result is not always the case, as might be inferred from our current knowledge of oncogenes as well as tumor suppressor genes. Perhaps the most notable exception to this rule was the formation of immortal and tumorigenic hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies following the fusion of terminally differentiated plasma cells and a lym-phoid cell line.

Ethnographic Uses of the Lived Body

Such views of the body contrast with the individualized body of U.S. society and its linkage to sense of self, with its emphasis on individual responsibility, thinking rather than feeling, and bodily control (G. Becker, 1997). Myerhoff's (1978, p. 1) classic work, Number Our Days, opens with an ode to bodily knowledge, with the words of Basha, an old Jewish woman living in California Every morning I wake up in pain. I wiggle my toes. Good. They still obey. I open my eyes. Good. I can see. Everything hurts but I get dressed. I walk down to the ocean. Good. It's still there. Now my day can start. About tomorrow I never know. After all, I'm eighty-nine. I can't live forever. This statement is a direct illustration of Csordas' (1993, p. 138) term, somatic modes of attention, which he defines as culturally elaborated ways of attending to and with one's body in surroundings that include the embodied presence of others. Csordas' (1994b) work on the Charismatic Renewal in the United States is...

Adolescence 12 to 17 Years

NEUROLOGIC ASPECTS Abstract reasoning ability progressively develops during adolescence, paired with a self-centered worldview and self-consciousness regarding appearance. Feelings of immortality and denial of the consequences of risky behavior are common. Loss of autonomy is the greatest fear of an adolescent, and mistrust of and rebellion toward authority is normal. Previously well-controlled chronic disease frequently becomes unstable as a result of these developmental issues. Psychiatric disease and suicidal behavior are increasingly recognized in this age group. The parents of teenagers are frequently angered by these changes and may project these feelings on the emergency department staff.

Serious Illness And Other Unanticipated Absences

Both therapists and clients tend to find comforting the myth that the therapist is immortal and invulnerable (Pope, Sonne, & Greene, 2006). Therapists may enjoy the feeling of strength and of being a perfect care-giver that such a fantasy, which sometimes occurs on an unconscious level, provides. Clients may soothe themselves (and avoid confronting some personal issues) with the fantasy that they are being cared for by an omnipotent, immortal parental figure. Although we have not completed our careful study of every therapist who has ever lived, our preliminary results suggests that there has yet to appear a therapist who is immortal and invulnerable. For all of us who are mortal and vulnerable, it is important to prepare for those unexpected times when we are suddenly unavailable to our clients (see Chapter Six).

Glutamate Hypothesis

The Czech Republic-born American logician and mathematician Kurt Godel (1906-1978) formulated his incompleteness theorem in 1931, which states that in any formal system that employs arithmetic, it is possible to develop statements that are true but that cannot be proved within the system. Another way to express Godel's theorem is All consistent axiomatic formulations of number theory include undecidable propositions. This theorem of incompleteness means that all mathematics is based on a set of axioms some mathematical truths cannot be derived from these axioms, and the set of axioms, therefore, is incomplete. In its barest form, Godel's formulation involves the translation of an ancient paradox (i.e., Epi-menides' paradox, or the liar paradox) in philosophy into mathematical terms. Epi-menides (c. 6th century, B.C.) was a Cretan prophet who made one immortal statement All Cretans are liars (cf., Titus 1 12 in the

Cellular Replication Rates In Neoplasia

Cairns (1975) has suggested that at least two mechanisms safeguard against such conversion. One mechanism involves the loss of cells that harbor such mutations through normal elimination such as desquamation or terminal differentiation. Second, it is theoretically possible that the daughter cell remaining in the stem cell population after division, the so-called immortal daughter cell, always receives the DNA molecules that represent the older of the two parental strands. In this way mutations occurring during replication would not collect in the stem cell population.

Postbiblical Christian Thought

The Christian Hope Today. Death and Immortality in the Religions of the World, pp. 37-50, ed. Paul Badham and Linda Badham. New York Paragon House. Hick, John. 1976. Death and Eternal Life. New York Harper & Row. McGown, Thomas. 1987. Eschatology in Recent Catholic Thought. Death and Immortality in the Religions of the World, pp. 51-70, ed. Paul Badham and Linda Badham. New York Paragon House.

Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

It has been postulated that stem cells should have evolved special mechanisms of protecting their DNA against accumulation of replication errors, which may otherwise result in a high rate of tissue cancer. These mechanisms may involve either slow or rare cell cycling and or asymmetrically segregating the newly synthesized DNA into the non-stem cell progeny (the immortal DNA strand hypothesis). To date, the validity of these hypotheses remains uncertain. In the hair follicle, the cell cycle times of ESSCs relative to transit amplifying (TA) (progeny) cells have been difficult to measure with precision. However, the concept of SCs as rarely dividing cells is in good agreement with the low mitotic activity detected in the bulge.

The Kantian Impact and the Limits of Understanding

While relativizing our knowledge both of the physical world, including the individual human organism, and of the metaphysical world, with its certitude about the immortality of the soul, Kant nonetheless insisted on a transcendental component in human understanding and explicitly included belief in personal immortality in the sense of eternal life. The same seems to hold for the personality-action component of the human individual. Empirically, the action sciences can account for its coming-to-be and its demise without postulating its survival. But they cannot exclude the possibility of such survival. Thus the eternal life of the individual soul, although metaphysically unknowable, can, like resurrected bodies, be speculated about and believed in as a matter of faith. The grounding of this door-opening process lies in Kant's conception of freedom as the central feature of what he called practical reason. In essence, the human will, as he called it, can no more be bound by a set of...

Representative Philosophical and Theological Perspectives

In the Hebrew tradition of the Old Testament, death is considered a punishment for the sin of disobedience. It is an absolute punishment. This tradition does not hold a concept of an afterlife following the punishment of death. But it would be misleading to say that this tradition has no conception of immortality, since the communal setting of the individual's experience and life remains the arena of that person's identity and impact, even after the death of the body. Although the conscious life of the person ceases, the person lives on in the collective life, unless he or she lived badly. Thus, immortality is the community's conscious and unconscious memory of the person. Traditions believing in eternal life differ in their view of the soul and its relationship to the body. This has implications for the criteria that might be used to determine death, as well as for the appropriate treatment of the body after death. The soul is viewed by some as separate and capable of migrating or...

The Focus The Bible

Deuteronomy 28 1-64 is a lengthy, but excellent, example from the Old Testament. Examples for Christians from the New Testament, although not so lengthy, still show the contingencies of the behaviors If you want to enter life, obey the commandments. (Matthew 19 17) To those who by persistence in doing good seek glory, honor and immortality, he will give eternal life. But for those who are self-seeking and who reject the truth and follow evil, there will be wrath and anger. (Romans 2 6-8).

Inactivation of Rb and p53 Pathways

Telomere erosion is an important - but not the only - block against immortalization in human cells. In the culture dish most cell types (with the exception offibroblasts) cease division within few population doublings, irrespective of telomere length. This arrest is termed M0 31 , and is observed in human and mouse cells, although the underlying mechanism of the two species is different. Although p16 and ARF genes are induced simultaneously in mouse cells, it is only the activation of the ARF p53 axis that prevents immortalization in mice. In contrast, mainly p16 is activated in human cells. However, even in the presence of active telomerase it is not sufficient only to inhibit p16 deactivation of p16 causes cell cycle progression as Rb is allowed to be phosphorylated. This in turn triggers release ofthe pleiotropic E2F transcription factor which is normally sequestered by Rb. The release of E2F induces cell cycle progression and activation of ARF, and this leads to elevated levels of...

Monoclonal Antibodies mAbs

Available indefinitely in large quantities. The cell line which makes such an antibody is called a B cell hybridoma. The relevant techniques are conceptually simple and involve the fusion of a B lymphocyte secreting antibody of the desired specificity with a myeloma (plasmacytoma) line which has the capacity for indefinite growth and division. The resultant hybrid then carries the antibody-secreting capacity of one parent and the immortality of the other.

Methods of making monoclonal antibodies

The main requirements for the generation of a good monoclonal antibody are 1) a source of large numbers of suitably activated B lymphocytes from a hyperimmune subject and 2) a fusion partner from (ideally) the same species which is immortal and which has plasmacytoma myeloma characteristics, i.e. a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and the capacity to make large amounts of the required antibody after fusion, but which lacks the capacity to make antibody coded by its own genes. This last point is important since otherwise the fused cells make not only antibody from both parents, but also hybrid antibodies involving the combination of the different chains of the two and the capacity of the fused cells to make the required monoclonal in large amounts is corrupted.

Cells That Produce In Hepatocyte And Bile Duct Epithelial Phenotypes In Vitro

Several in vitro models for hepatic stem cell growth and differentiation have been developed. Two general approaches to the in vitro study of liver stem cells can be distinguished. First, cell sorting can be applied to isolate putative liver stem cells on the basis of cell surface marker expression. These cells can then be cultured, and their growth and differentiation potential determined in vitro. Second, immortal cell lines can be derived from liver tissue by extensive in vitro manipulation and growth. To date, very little work has been done on the prospective isolation of hepatic progenitors by cell sorting. In contrast, putative liver progenitor cell lines from several mammalian species have been isolated and propagated in tissue culture. These systems aid the experimental understanding of factors controlling hepatocyte and duct cell differentiation, and may permit the generation of large numbers of hepatocytes in vitro for therapeutic transplantation. In addition to the creation...

Mapping Molecular Network Analysis From Clinical Specimens

Proteins are assembled into complex networks through a variety of protein-protein interactions in both extracellular and intracellular microenvironments. The structural conformation of a protein and the subsequent access of interaction domains (e.g., SH2 and SH3 domains) enable a highly selective recognition between protein partners in a communication circuit of protein-protein interactions. Proteins can undergo conformational changes that functionally permit or prevent protein activity within networks. Conformational changes are largely dictated by posttranslational modifications that include phosphorylation, cleavage, acetylation, glycosylation, and ubiq-uitinylation. Such modifications functionally define regulated protein-protein interactions through specific domain binding, which then controls the information flow from the extracellular space to the nucleus. These signaling networks regulate key biologic processes defining cell function within larger tissue- and organ-specific...

Dna Methylation Telomerase Cell Senescence And Transformation

In Chapter 15 the importance of alterations in DNA methylation was discussed, as well as telo-merase activity and telomere length as common alterations in neoplasia. In cultured cells, these functions appear to play a quite significant role, especially in the phenomenon of cell senescence, which was briefly described in Chapter 14. In short, essentially all cells that are placed in culture have a finite period or finite number of doublings during which they remain structurally and genetically normal cells (Hayflick, 1997). At the end of this time, the cells either die or some of them become transformed to an immortal phenotype that is accompanied by an altered karyotype, which usually expresses instability subsequently as the cells are continued in culture. In recent years, the association of DNA methylation and telomerase and telomeres has been a subject of intense investigation. These are considered separately here, although in fact they are closely related functions.

DNA Methylation and Transformation

When cells are first placed into culture, there is usually a rapid general loss of DNA methylation but as immortal cells emerge, the methylated DNA content of such cell lines appears to increase (cf. Razin and Cedar, 1991). Recall that in neoplastic cells in vivo there is a general hypomethy-lation of DNA, although there are clearly areas of hypermethylation within the DNA of a variety of human neoplasms (cf. Laird and Jaenisch, 1994). Baylin and associates (1997) have reviewed some of the changes that may be seen in the DNA methylation capability of cells in culture as a function of the level of the DNA-methyltransferase activity. Figure 16.15 summarizes much of the experimental data for the relations between DNA methyltransferase activity to fibroblast aging and senescence as well as infection with the SV40 oncogenic virus. The changes in methyla-tion seen on initial explantation are not appreciated from the graph, although the relative DNA methyltransferase of young fibroblasts may...

Telomeres Telomerase and Cell Senescence and Transformation

As suggested in Chapter 15, the normal adult mammal tends to have extremely short or virtually absent telomeres in many of the highly differentiated cell types within the organism. When cells are initially placed in culture, especially mesenchymal cells, they initially have telomeres as well as exhibit telomerase activity. As mesenchymal cells are maintained in culture, their telomeres decrease in length until they become extremely short the cells then stop replicating and subsequently die or go through a crisis (see above), at which time immortal cells develop. These immortal cells now exhibit telomerase activity and have telomeres, although usually shorter than those in the original cell population at explantation. Transformation by oncogenic viruses or

Personalized Molecular Medicine Using Proteinmicroarray Technology

Cancer progression is characterized by the accumulation of multiple genetic mutations or epigenetic events that cooperate to drive malignancy. The orchestration of these genetic events occurs via dysregulated communication within signaling pathways that together drive proliferation, promote metastasis, block differentiation, or inhibit apoptosis, thereby conferring immortality (Figure 7.5). Each of these cellular processes is regulated by complex protein networks with multiple interconnected nodes of activity. Theoretically, aberrant protein function at any key region within the signaling network can impact the flow of downstream information. In cancer, there could be numerous combinations of mutated or aberrant regulatory proteins in different cooperating and interdependent pathways that together are sufficient to drive malignancy. Likewise, each individual patient's cancer might have a unique complement of pathogenic molecular derangements. It is also possible that

Asymmetric Mitoses and the Stem Line Mutation Rate

Cairns (1975) emphasized that in a stem-transit architecture, only the stem lineage survives over time. Thus, only those mutations in the immortal stem lineage remain in the tissue. Cairns argued that organisms may use various mechanisms to reduce the mutation rate in the stem lineage. Figure 12.10 Cairns' (1975) hypothesis of asymmetric DNA segregation in stem cell divisions. (a) Immortal stranding, in which the stem lineage along the bottom always receives the older strand of the DNA duplex in each round of cell division. (b) Segregation of the newer DNA strand to the stem cell lineage in each round of cell division. Random segregation would follow a stochastic process between these two patterns. See text for full discussion. Figure 12.10 Cairns' (1975) hypothesis of asymmetric DNA segregation in stem cell divisions. (a) Immortal stranding, in which the stem lineage along the bottom always receives the older strand of the DNA duplex in each round of cell division. (b) Segregation of...

Ebd Growth And Expression Characteristics

Using mRNA and antibody expression profiling, we can demonstrate that most rapidly proliferating EBD cell cultures simultaneously express a wide array of mRNA and protein markers normally associated with distinct developmental lineages. This is not a surprising property considering that EBD cells are, at least during the derivation stage, a mixed-cell population. More remarkable is the finding that most (11 of 13) EBD cell lines isolated by dilution cloning also exhibit a broad multilineage gene expression profile. It can also be demonstrated that the expression profile for a given EBD culture remains stable throughout the lifespan of the culture. This normally exceeds 70 population doublings but is not unlimited since EBD cells are not immortal. Other general characteristics of EBD cells are the relative ease with which they can be genetically manipulated using lipofection and electroporation as well as retroviral, adenovi-ral, and lentiviral vectors. Adenoviral and lentiviral...

Wedensky Inhibitioneffect

Is suggested that the behavior of an organism is controlled and regulated by a cognitive agent called the homunculus that is located within the individual's brain and whose behavior is just as complex as is the individual's behavior that is being explained in more recent times, the homunculus is portrayed as a tiny, grotesque-looking man whose distorted body parts indicate the relative sizes of their sensory projection areas in the somatosensory cortex for example, the head, the hands -especially the thumbs, and feet of the homun-culus are grossly exaggerated in size to signify their relative importance and representations in the somatosensory cortical regions). In Weismann's view, germ plasms give the continuity from parent to offspring all other cells are merely a vehicle to convey the germ plasm, and it alone is, in a sense, immortal other cells are destined to die. Weismann also notes that some form of reduction division -that is now known to occur during meiosis -must occur if...

Socrates Plato and Aristotle

Less mysterious is how Socrates could go from the cautious and skeptical views on death expressed in Apology to the far more metaphysically burdened opinions of Phaedo. The accepted explanation here is that in Phaedo, written later than Apology and Crito, Socrates has been transformed into a spokesperson for Plato (ca. 428-348 b.c.e.). As such, Phaedo is best read as the most complete case that Plato makes for his views on the immortality of the soul, with only Plato's view of death is inseparable from his doctrine of the soul, his identification of the soul with personhood, and ultimately the theory of Forms. Curiously, Plato's arguments are directed more to establishing the immortality of the soul than to the logically prior task of showing that the soul is the person. Whether the soul is identical to the person is a matter of continuing controversy in bioethical debates over the definition of death and criteria for personhood. In Phaedo, Plato reminds readers that knowledge is...

Confucianism and Daoism

The Chinese developed two other perspectives on death a return to nature and physical immortality. The Daoist philosopher Chuang Tzu (365-290 b.c.e.) wrote that life and death were two aspects of the same reality, mere differences of form. Death was a natural and welcomed release from life, and was to be neither feared nor desired. Because individuals were reabsorbed into nature, both birth and death were as natural as the progression of the four seasons. Other Daoists were interested in alchemy, macrobiotic diets, exercises, fasting, and meditation. Besides desiring health, youth, and longevity, they wanted immortality. They had several views of the latter the physical body would rise to heaven the real body, not the physical one in the tomb, would rise the physical body would go to the Isles of the Blessed, said to be off the northeast coast of China or the self would emerge from the body at death, like the butterfly from its cocoon, to wander freely about the universe or go to the...

Real Time Detection and Quantification of Telomerase Activity Utilizing Energy Transfer Primers

Telomeres, the specific structures found at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes are essential for stabilization of chromosome ends (1,2). Chromosomes lacking telomeres undergo fusion, rearrangement, and translocation (1). In somatic cells, telomeres are progressively shortened during each cycle of cell division owing to the inability of the DNA polymerase complex to replicate the very 5'-end of the lagging strand of DNA (3,4). Telomerase, a ribonucleopro-tein reverse transcriptase (5,6), adds telomeric repeats onto the 3'-end of telomeres, thereby compensating for the gradual loss of telomeres (1). Telomerase activity is repressed in most somatic tissues but is found in germline cells, stem cells, cancer cells, and immortal cells (7,8), which suggests a close association between telomerase expression and immortalization cellular proliferation capacity. In fact, de novo expression of the telomerase activity extends the lifespan of normal human cells (9). These findings have made

In Defense of Current Animal Experimentation

Behind such arguments lie a variety of philosophical positions. For instance, it may be said that, as related in Genesis 1 26, God has given human beings dominion over the other animals, to use them as we please. Combined with other theological notions, such as the idea that humans, alone of all animals, have immortal souls, this idea has been influential throughout the Christian world. But it can be turned the other way As long ago as 1713 Alexander Pope argued against cruel experiments on the grounds that dominion requires us to play the role of the good shepherd, caring for our flock (Turner). More recently a number of Christians have suggested that the gift of dominion should be interpreted as one of stewardship, which makes us responsible for the care of the nonhuman creation (Attfield Linzey). It remains unclear, however, precisely what follows from this reinterpretation. In particular, does it imply that humans are not entitled to use animals in harmful experiments or only that...

Simple Counting Mechanism

For the first half of the twentieth century it was believed that cells cultured in laboratory glassware could replicate indefinitely if the correct nutrient media and other conditions of growth could be found. Repeated initial failure at culturing indefinitely replicating cells was followed by success in the late 1940s, when the immortal L929 cancer cell population was developed from mouse tissue. Later, other immortal cell populations were found, including the first human cell line, HeLa, derived from a human cervical carcinoma.

Tipofthetongue Phenomenon

Process by which new positive events at a goal-location could work their way back to affect any subsequent response selection. Tolman asserts that organisms have internal representations that allow them to demonstrate goal learning and discriminations. Evidence for this position comes from experiments on reward expectancy, place learning, latent learning latent extinction, partial reinforcement extinction effect discrimination hypothesis, provisional expectancies hypotheses theory, and vicarious trial-and-error learning. Tolman's latent incidental learning theory states that learning may occur in the absence of a foreseen goal or reward such learning is not observable directly but becomes apparent with the later introduction of a goal the theory is open to criticism on the grounds that it is always possible to identify goals in retrospect, but not prospectively. Tolman's theory anticipated many of the later significant developments in learning theory. For example, the current topics...

Major Beliefs in African Religion

African religion places humans at the center of the world. It is believed throughout Africa that God created human beings, and thousands of stories and myths visualize how this happened. According to some, humans were created at the end of the primal creation, formed from clay as husband and wife (or as two pairs), or created in heaven (sky) and lowered to the earth. Others say that husband and wife were created in a vessel, in water, or in the fruit of a tree. Creation stories relate that the original state of humanity was one of bliss, in which people were endowed with immortality, rejuvenation (if they became old), or resurrection (if they died). The earth was directly linked to heaven (the sky) God and humans lived close to each other, as a family. For various reasons these gifts were lost death, disease, and suffering appeared, as well as the separation between heaven and earth, between God and humans. However, God did not abandon humans, but...

Uses of Reproductive Cloning

Below, while this would not bring back the loved one or duplicate them exactly, there would be some similarities and thus in a way the ability to keep some part of the person alive. One might even want to achieve a certain kind of immortality by cloning oneself. This would be similar in some way to living on through our children and their children.

Primordial Germ Cells

PGCs do not survive well under standard tissue culture conditions and are not pluripotent stem cells in vivo or in vitro. Early attempts to use various growth factors and feeder layers succeeded in prolonging their survival, but proliferation was limited. The combination of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and c-kit ligand (KL, also known as stem cell factor, mast cell factor, or steel factor) proved to result in an immortal cell population, especially if the KL was presented in the transmembrane form by a layer of feeder cells (see the section Feeder Layer). Instead of

Love That Enriches Love That Endures

Good love is love that ultimately promotes the lover's sense of self-worth and liberates him from the strictures of self. Whether that love lasts the millennium is not the overriding consideration. In making this very point, Theodor Reik borrowed a politician's witticism Speeches to be immortal need not be eternal. Auden beautifully celebrates the transcendence of love, even while acknowledging its transience, in a poem that opens with the lines Lay your sleeping head, my love, Human on my faithless arm and goes on to depict precious instants of love Nonetheless, lovers always aspire to eternal, rather than merely immortal, love. (This aspiration is a natural consequence of the fact that the wish for all forms of gratification, including love, originates in the unconscious, where everything exists outside a temporal dimension.) Some lovers actually achieve the near impossible the preservation of passion in love. And it is natural for lovers and love's theorists both to have a profound...

Christian Orientations toward Death

There is no doubt of the predominance of a duality of levels in the Christian paradigm of the human condition, the levels of the spiritual and the material, the eternal and the temporal. On the one hand, there is the material-temporal world, of which one religious symbol is the dust to which humankind is said to return at death. On the other hand, there is the spiritual world of eternal life, which is the location of things divine, not human. The human person stands at the meeting of the two worlds, for he or she is, like the animals, made of dust, but is also, unlike the animals, made in the image of God. This biblical notion of humanity, when linked to Greek philosophical thought, gave rise to the idea in Catholic Christianity that the divine image was centered in the human soul, which was conceived as in some sense an emanation from the spiritual world of eternal life. Thus arose the notion of the immortal soul, which could survive the death of the organism, to be rejoined to a...

Programed and Genetic Theories

Studies involving fusion of normal cells (subject to senescence) with immortal cell lines in vitro have clearly demonstrated that the senescent phenotype is dominant, and that unlimited division potential results from changes in normal growth control mechanisms. These fusion studies have also revealed the existence of several dominant genes associated

Ketamine Ketalar Ketaject SuperK

Jonathan Ott includes Amanita muscaria and Amanita pan-therina in his Hallucinogenic Plants of North America (Berkeley, California Wingbow Press, 1976 revised edition, 1979). Descriptions of uses of Amanita muscaria will be found in Narcotic Plants of the Old World, Used in Rituals and Everyday Life An Anthology of Texts from Ancient Times to the Present, edited by Hedwig Schleiffcr (Monticello, New York Lubrecht & Cramer, 1979). In Soma Divine Mushroom of Immortality (New York Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972), R. Gordon Wasson presents his theory that Amanita muscaria was used as a sacramental intoxicant in ancient India.


Stem cell literature is replete with terms such as immortal, unlimited, continuous, and capable of extensive proliferation, all used to describe the cell's replicative capacity. These rather extreme and vague terms are not very helpful, as it can be noted that experiments designed to test the immortality of a stem cell would by necessity outlast authors and readers alike. Most somatic cells cultured in vitro display a finite number of (less than 80) population doublings prior to replicative arrest or senescence, and this can be contrasted with the seemingly unlimited proliferative capacity of stem cells in culture (Houck et al, 1971 Hayflick, 1973 Hayflick, 1974 Sherr and DePinho, 2000 Shay and Wright, 2000). Therefore, it is reasonable to say that a cell that can undergo more than twice this number of population doublings (160) without oncogenic transformation can be termed capable of extensive proliferation. In a few cases, this criteria has been met, most notably with embryonic...


Cloning can also be defined as transplantation of a nucleus from a cell (see Figure 1) into an ovum (technically, an oocyte, or egg). To understand this process, a few biological principles will be reviewed. The billions of cells in bodies of animals can be classified into two kinds somatic cells and germ-line cells. The germ-line cells have an element of immortality certain early embryonic cells divide to form a lineage of cells that divide to form gametes (sperm or oocytes), which, after fertilization, form embryos of the next generation, and so on ad infinitum unless the species becomes extinct. Except for gametes, all cells in the body are diploid, that is they have two similar copies of genetic material, one copy inherited from the sperm, and one copy from the egg. Whenever cells divide, they first duplicate the genetic material so that each resulting daughter cell remains diploid. However, the cells that will form sperm divide twice after duplicating their genetic material,...


Immortal cancer cells escape telomere loss by switching on a gene that expresses an enzyme called telomerase. This unusual enzyme is a reverse transcriptase that has an RNA template and a catalytic portion. At each round of DNA replication, telomerase adds onto the existing telomeres the nucleotides that would otherwise have been lost, thus maintaining a constant telomere length. In other words, telomerase acts as an immortalizing enzyme. In addition, it has several associated proteins whose roles are still under investigation.

Toward Postmodernism

Variations on religious, usually Christian, views of death and immortality continued in the writings of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century philosophers, including most notably the idealism of Georg W. F. Hegel (1770-1831) and the atheistic pessimism of Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860). Not until a real break with modern thought occurred did genuinely novel views about the significance of death and the possibility of immortality arise. In the thought of Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) many now find both the culmination of ancient and modern approaches to death and the transition to a postmodern worldview. And it is certainly true that in Nietzsche's various writings, one can find many different historically grounded and historically transcendent approaches to the problem of death.

Animal Theology

Animal theology relates Christian thinking to contemporary debates about the status and rights of the nonhuman animals (see ANIMAL RIGHTS). It seeks to address and redress the failure of historical theology to take seriously alternative insights that lie largely silent within the Christian tradition (see RELIGION AND ANIMALS, Christianity). Systematic theology has largely proceeded on the basis of the virtual nonexistence of animals. Historically, animals have been the outcasts of theology, defined as beings with no mind, reason, immortal soul, or moral status (see MORAL STANDING OF ANIMALS). Basic questions about their status and significance have simply not been addressed. The question raised by animal theology is whether Christian doctrine is necessarily speciesist (see SPECIESISM) and whether it can incorporate animal-centered concerns into mainstream thinking. Modern theologians argue variously that even conservative theological understandings can be enhanced and deepened by the...


Second, and allied to instrumentalism, there has been a consistent hu-manocentricity (see ANTHROPOCENTRISM) that has effectively defined animals out of the moral picture. This has been achieved largely through the emphasis upon certain perceived differences between humans and animals. Animals are judged as beings with no reason or immortal soul and


Alongside these negative types, there are positive ones too. Here are three examples. The first is that animal pain and predation, far from being the Creator's will, are actually contrary to it. C. S. Lewis,* for example, held that both animal pain and carnivorousness were the result of Satanic corruption of the earth before the emergence of human beings (see The Problem of Pain). It follows that humans therefore have a duty not to imitate such malevolent distortion and to fight against it. The second is that while the Creator allows pain in creation (both animal and human) as an inevitable corollary of the freedom allowed to creation itself, such pain will eventually be transformed by a greater joy beyond death. Keith Ward, for example, holds that immortality, for animals as well as humans, is a necessary condition of any acceptable theodicy'' and that necessity, together with all the other arguments for God, is one of the main reasons for believing in immortality.'' Such a prospect...

Wesley John

A fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, John Wesley (1704-1791) began the spiritual revival later known as Methodism. He was one of the few English reformers to advocate ethical care for animals. His sermon in defense of animal immortality has become a classic But what does it answer to dwell


The human body is comprised of 10 billion cells, the majority of which replicate themselves and are thus theoretically immortal. Regarding the cell's potential immortality Hayflick (1968) observed that after 50 replications ( 10 replications) cultured fibro-blasts lose their ability to divide. He concluded that human cells have a limited lifespan, termed under these model conditions the Hayflick limit. Aging is thus an intrinsic process of the cell itself (Hayflick 2002).


In no small measure, Vedic (Brahmanical) religion (1500-600 b.c.e.), its sequel now called Hinduism, and other Indian religions (Jainism and Buddhism) inherited views of death from the Indo-Europeans who came to India, probably from eastern Anatolia. Because life expectancy in the prehistoric world was about thirty years, on account of disease, natural calamities, and warfare, people turned to religion for help, performing rituals for health, physical security, longevity, or immortality. One of the Vedic texts that elaborated on the ritual, the Satapatha Brahma a, said the Vedic sacrifice was a boat the priests, oars and the patron, a passenger who would reach heaven if no error were made in performing the ritual (4.5.10). Sacrifice also became a way of overcoming death by moving beyond samsara, the cycles of death and rebirth ( A personification of death demanded what would happen to him. He was told by the other gods that he had dominion over...

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