As to native antibody molecule other than the combining site

Moreschi (1909) used AAs to achieve agglutination of erythrocytes sensitized by nonagglutinating antibodies. He showed that rabbit erythrocytes sensitized by such antibodies of goat origin would undergo agglutination when exposed to rabbit antiserum against goat serum proteins. This was the first description of what has been called later antiglobulin reactions which were introduced into routine laboratory practice by Coombs, Mourant and Race in 1945. AAs active in these tests, frequently referred to as antiglobulin antibodiess, are usually produced by immunization with immunoglobulins of animals of foreign species (e.g. rabbits or goats are immunized with human immunoglobulins). These AAs recognize clearly the species origin of the antibody with which they are reacting.

Allotypes are inherited antigens of immunoglobulins originally described by Grubb (1956). They are usually recognized by means of AAs produced by an animal of the same species. Production of such AAs occurs spontaneously in some humans, although the reasons for this are unclear, or may be achieved by intentional immunization of animals, e.g. rabbits, mice or sheep with allogeneic immunoglobulins.

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