Unknown Unknown

LG (75%) AKR (12.6%) C3H (12.1%) C57BL76 (0.3%) SB/Le (50%) C57BL/6 (50%)

Female hormones Ipr gene

Y chromosome-associated

15 months 22 months Females, 9 months Males, 13 months Ipr/lpr, 4-5 months +/+, 16-18 months

Males, 5 months Females, 21 months organs, including salivary and lacrimal glands, are observed, particularly in MRL-/pr mice.

Serologically, all of the above systcmic auto-immunity-prone mice develop hypergammaglobulinemia, a variety of anticellular autoantibodies (predominantly antibodies to chromatin components), and antibodies against retroviral glycoproteins, but some strain-specific responses are noted. For example, anti-Sm autoantibodies appear only in MRL (both +/+ and Ipr/lpr) mice, and high titers of IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors are present primarily in the Ipr homozygous mice, while anti-erythrocyte and antithymocyte autoantibodies mainly characterize the NZB and (NZB X W)F1, and antiplatelet autoantibodies are found in BXSB mice.

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