Coagulation and its modulation

A veritable cascade of limited proteolytic reactions are encompassed in the coagulation process. A series of inactive proteins, namely, zymogens, are sequentially activated by limited proteolysis, culminating

Figure 1 Pathways of coagulation and fibrinolysis. II, Prothrombin, factor II; lla, thrombin, factor lla; V, factor V; Va, factor Va; VII, factor VII; Vila, factor Vila; VIII, factor VIII; Villa, factor Villa; IX, factor IX; IXa, factor IXa; X, factor X; Xa, factor Xa; XI, factor XI; Xla, factor Xla; XII, factor XII; Xlla, factor Xlla; XIII, factor XIII; Xllla, factor Xllla; a,-AT, (^-antitrypsin; a2-MG, «2 macro-globulin; C1-lnhib., C1-inhibitor; APCI, activated protein C inhibitor; HMWK, high molecular weight kininogen; P, plasmin; K, kal-likrein; PK, prekallikrein; M, membrane; ATI 11, antithrombin III; Fg, fibrinogen; H, heparin; MPL, membrane phospholipid; TF, tissue factor, thromboplastin; TF-VII, tissue factor-factor VII complex; TF-Vlla, tissue factor-factor Vila complex; TFPI, tissue factor pathway inhibitor; Xa TFPI, factor Xa-tissue factor pathway inhibitor complex; ATIII-H, antithrombin III—heparin complex; vWF, vonWillebrand factor; spont., spontaneously; DP, degradation products; PC, protein C; APC, activated protein C; PS, protein S; APC-PS, activated protein C-protein S complex; C4bBP, C4b binding protein; PS-C4bBP, protein S-C4bBP complex; HCII, heparin cofactor II; F, fibrin; TM, thrombomodulin; lla-TM-Ca-M, thrombin-thrombomodulin-calcium-membrane complex; X-linked F, cross-linked fibrin; Pg, plasminogen; a2-AP, a2-antiplasmin; His-rich GP, histidine-rich glycoprotein; 1c-u-PA, one-chain urinary plasminogen activator; 2c-u-PA, two-chain urinary plasminogen activator; 1 -c-t-PA, one-chain tissue plasminogen activator; 2-c-t-PA, two-chain tissue plasminogen activator; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; PAI-2, plasminogen activator inhibitor 2.


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