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Figure 1 The CD28 receptor system. CD28 and CTLA-4 are stimulated by CD80 and CD86 ligands on activated APCs. Signals from CD28 are required for T cell activation and cytokine secretion, while signals from CTLA-4 inhibit T cell activation.

CTLA-4-Ig has been tested in numerous animal models of autoimmune disease and transplantation, and is currently in a phase I clinical trial in patients with refractory psoriasis, CTLA-4-Ig offers significant promise as a selective, nontoxic molecule for improved immunosuppressive therapy.

See also: CD antigens; B7 (CD80 & CD86); Cyclosporins; Cytokine genes, regulation of; Immunotherapy of tumors; Interleukin 2; Second signals for lymphocyte activation; T lymphocyte activation; T lymphocytes; Tolerance, peripheral; Tumors, immune response to.

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