Cytokine expression and immunoregulation

More recent studies have shown that C5a in synergy with LPS promotes expression of IL-1 and IL-6 in monocytes. Combined stimulation of basophils with IL-3 and C5a induces the selective expression of IL-4 and IL-13, which are key immunoregulatory cytokines for the induction of a TH2-type immune response and for the synthesis of immunoglobulin E (IgE). C5a is unique in this respect, as other chemotactic agonists, such as chemokines which are also effective triggers of chemotaxis and/or exocytosis, are unable to induce cytokine expression. Thus, C5a is not just an inflammatory mediator but may also have indirect immunoregulatory properties, and promote humoral and Tn2 type immune responses. These observations also emphasize the importance of studying the effects of anaphylatoxins within the network of other factors.

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