Dendritic cell progenitors Progenitors in vivo

The bone marrow (BM) origin of DCs is well established from studies with radiation-induced BM chimeras, in which replacement of host DCs by donor-derived cells can be visualized. It seems probable that DC progenitors seed most tissues, but the present lack of markers for the cells at this early stage precludes precise estimates of their numbers. Stimuli that recruit DC progenitors into tissues include granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), since, for example, local production of GM-CSF increases the numbers of DCs in human lung and some lung cancers, and increased numbers of DCs are present in the dermis of human skin after intradermal administration of this cytokine. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or cytokines elicited by this agent, recruits DC progenitors to rat lung, and mouse heart and kidney, following aerosol and systemic administration of LPS, respectively.

Following transplantation of rat liver to allogeneic recipients, donor-derived DC progenitors can be detected in host BM, suggesting that DC progenitors from at least some nonlymphoid tissues may seed other sites. After transplantation of human livers,

Table 1 Phenotype of dendritic cells3

Molecule

Expression on DCs° and comments

Status"

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