Diapedesis and cell activation or cell differentiation

Close cellular interactions might have consequences for cellular activation and/or cell differentiation. Circulating monocytes and granulocytes traverse the endothelium as a response to a stimulus. In the tissues, monocytes differentiate into different types of macrophages. The exact trigger for the onset of such differentiation is unknown. It has been suggested that the cellular contact occurring during diapedesis provides a signal for differentiation. More likely, however, is that local conditions, which can be anatomical or biochemical, including cytokines or other mediators, and oxygen tension orchestrate monocyte differentiation. This is exemplified by differences between peritoneal macrophages, alveolar macrophages, Kupffer cells, osteoclasts, etc.

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