Further reading

Amadori A, Zamarchi R, De Silvestro G et al (1995) Genetic control of the CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio in humans. Nature Medicine 1: 1279-1283. Ansar Ahmed S, Penhale WJ and Talal N (1985) Sex hormones, immune responses and autoimmune diseases. American Journal of Pathology 121: 531-551. Araneo BA, Dowell T, Diegel M and Daynes RA (1991) Dihydrotestosterone exerts a depressive influence on the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and gamma-interferon, but not IL-2, by activated murine T cells. Blood 78: 688-699. Fox HS (1992) Androgen treatment prevents diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine 175: 1409-1412.

Fox HS, Bond BL and Parslow TG (199 I) The interferon-gamma promoter is regulated by estrogen. Journal of Immunology 146: 4362-4367.

Hughes DE, Dai A, Tiffee JC, Li HH, Mundy GR and Boyce BF (1996) Estrogen promotes apopcosis of murine osteoclasts mediated by TGF-p. Nature Medicine 2: 1132-1136.

Jilka RL, Hangoc G, Girasole G et al i 1992) Increased osteoclast development after estrogen loss: mediation by interleukin-6. Science 257: 88-91.

I.i P, Allen H, Banerjee S et al (1995) Mice deficient in II-1 beta-converting enzyme are defective in production of mature II.-1 beta and resistant to endotoxie shock. Cell 80: 401-411.

Medina KI. and Kincade PW (1994) Pregnancy-related steroids are potential negative regulators of B lymphopoiesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 91: 5382-5386.

Olsen NJ and Kovacs WJ (1996) Gonadal steroids and immunity. Endocrine Reviews 17: 369-384.

Pottratz ST, Bellido T, Mocharta H, Crabb D and Mano-lagas SC (1994) 17(3-Estradiol inhibits expression of human interleukin-6 promoter-reporter constructs by a receptor-dependent mechanism. Journal of Clinical Investigation 93: 944-950.

Prabhala RH and Wira CR ยก1995) Sex hormone and 1L.-6 regulation of antigen presentation in the female reproductive tract mucosal tissues. Journal of Immunology 155: 5566-5573.

Preston AM, Spira Al, Gertie A et al (1996) Progesterone implants enhance SIV vaginal transmission and early virus load. Nature Medicine 2: 1084-1089.

Yang NN, Venugopalan M, Hardikar S and Glasebrook A (1996) Identification of an estrogen response activated by metabolites of 17(3-estradiol and raloxifene. Science 273: 1222-1225.

Young WG, Newcomb GM and Hosking AR (1985) The effect of atrophy, hyperplasia and kerarinization accompanying the estrous cycle on I.angerhan's cells in mouse vaginal epithelium. American Journal of Anatomy 174: 173-186.


David WK Acheson and Gerald T Keusch, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tupper Research Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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