Further reading

Azuma M, Cayabyab M, Buck D, Phillips JH and Lanier LL (1992) CD28 interaction with B7 ┬ź┬╗stimulates primary allogeneic proliferative responses and cytotoxicity mediated by small, resting T lymphocytes. Journal of Experimental Medicine 175: 353-360. Boise LH, Minn AJ, Noel PJ et al (1995) CD28 costimu-lation can promote T cell survival by enhancing the expression of bcl-xL. Immunity 3: 87-98. Borriello F, Sethna MP, Boyd SD et al (1997) B7-1 and B7-2 have overlapping, critical roles in immunoglobulin class switching and germinal center formation. Immunity 6: 303-313. Boussiotis VA, Freeman GJ, Gribben JG and Nadler I.M (1996) The role of B7-i/B7-2:CD28/CTLA4 pathways in the prevention of anergy, induction of productive immunity and down-regulation of the immune response. Immunological Reviews 153: 1-26. Carroll RG, Riley JL, Levine BL et al (1997) Differential regulation of HIV-1 fusion cofactor expression by CD28 costimulation of CD4 T cells. Science 276: 273-276.

Freeman GJ, Gribben JG, Boussiotis VA et al (1993) Cloning of B7-2: a CTLA4 counter-receptor that costimu-lates human T cell proliferation. Science 262: 909-911. Freeman GJ, Boussiotis VA, Anumanthan A et al (1995) B7-1 and B7-2 do not deliver identical costimulatory signals since B7-2 but not B7-1 preferentially costimu-lates the initial production of II.-4. Immunity 2: 523-532.

Gimmi CD, Freeman GJ, Gribben JG, Gray G and Nadler LM (1993) Human T-cell clonal anergy is induced by antigen presentation in the absence of B7 costimulation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 90: 6586-6590.

Gribben JG, Freeman GJ, Boussiotis VA et al (1995) CLTA4 mediates antigen-specific apoptosis of human T cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 92: 811-815.

Kuchroo VK, Das MP, Brown JA et al (1995) B7-1 and B7-2 costimulatory molecules activate differentially the Thl/Th2 developmental pathways: application to autoimmune disease therapy. Cell 80: 707-718.

Lenschow DJ, Zeng Y, Thistlethwaite JR et al (1992) Long-term survival of xenogeneic pancreatic islet grafts induced by CTLA4Ig. Science 257: 789-792.

Lenschow DJ, Ho SC, Sattar H et al (1995) Differential effects of anti-B7-l and anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibody treatment on the development of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse. Journal of Experimental Medicine 181: 1145-1155.

Linsley PS, Greene JL, Brady W, Bajorath J, Ledbetter JA

and Peach R (1994) Human B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) bind with similar avidities but distinct kinetics to CD28 and CTLA-4 receptors. Immunity 1: 793-801.

Townsend SE and Allison JP (1993) Tumor rejection after direct costimulation of CD8~ T cells by B7-transfected melanoma cells. Science 259: 368-370.

Tsuyuki S, Tsuyuki J, Einsle K, Kopf M and Coyle AJ (1997) Costimulation through B7-2 (CD86) is required for the induction of a lung mucosal T helper cell 2 (TH2) immune response and altered airway responsiveness. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185: 1671-1679.

Walunas TL, Lenschow DJ, Bakker CY et al (1994) CTI.A-4 can function as a negative regulator of T cell activation. Immunity 1: 405-413.

Wu Y, Guo Y, Huang A et al (1997) CTLA-4-B7 interaction is sufficient to costimulate T-cell clonal expansion. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185: 1327-1335.

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