Intestinal villi

1. Pig intestinal epithelium does not express MHC class II molecules.

2. Activated T cells and the endothelium (M1L-111) express MHC class II.

3. CD4' and CD84 T cells are lacking in newborn and young germ-free piglets. Enterocytes in newborn piglets have large cytoplasmic vacuoles disappearing after gut closure (in germ-free piglets persisting for some 6 weeks).

4. Intraepithelial lymphocytes are MHC II CDS (also adjacent to the epithelium).

5. Core cells are CD4' T cells coexpressing the SLA-DR molecules when activated.

Deep lamina propria

1. Eosinophils among crypts are MIL-3', MHC JIT cells.

2. Neutrophils (e.g. Salmonella-infected pigs) in the base of villi express MIL-4.

3. Macrophages (74-22-15% MIL-3", MIL-4") are distributed mostly in the interfollicular area.

Peyer's patches (PPs)

Jejunal PP Ileal PP

Number 25-35 1

Size small large

Persistence whole life 1 year

B/T cell ratio 1 10

PP cells produce IL-2 and IFN-y, whereas lamina propria lymphocytes secrete IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 cytokines. Peyer's patches play an important role in the differentiation of immune cells, antigen recognition, specific immune responses, and as the site of invasion for some pathogens.

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