Hiv2

5 ltr

Figure 2 Genomic organization of HIV-1 and HIV-2. The genomes, which are between 9 and 10kb long, are flanked by long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences. The vpu gene is only found in HIV-1 and the closely related simian virus from the chimpanzee, SIVcpz. The vpx gene is common only to HIV-2 and its related simian counterparts isolated from the macaque and the sooty mangabey monkey, SIVmac and SIVsmm respectively.

5 ltr

3'LTR

Figure 2 Genomic organization of HIV-1 and HIV-2. The genomes, which are between 9 and 10kb long, are flanked by long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences. The vpu gene is only found in HIV-1 and the closely related simian virus from the chimpanzee, SIVcpz. The vpx gene is common only to HIV-2 and its related simian counterparts isolated from the macaque and the sooty mangabey monkey, SIVmac and SIVsmm respectively.

the nucleocapsid (NC) p7 and p6 which facilitates virion budding from the cell.

Since the gag and pol genes overlap in different reading frames (Figure 2), translational frameshifting is necessary to produce the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor (pi 06) which also undergoes proteolytic cleavage by the virus-encoded protease to produce 1) the protease (plO) responsible for the breakdown of p55 gag, 2) the enzyme reverse transcriptase, p66 and p51, and 3) an endonuclease or integrase (p32) to catalyze the integration of the provirus into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell. Thus, both the Gag and Gag-Pol precursor proteins are broken down to their final products by the same protease, plO, during or after budding from the cell surface.

The initial 160 kDa glycoprotein product of the env gene undergoes cleavage to leave a newly glycosylated surface (SU) protein of 120 kDa (gpl20) at the N-terminus, and the C-terminal gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein. The viral gp41 serves to anchor gpl20 to which it remains noncovalently attached and to effect membrane fusion via a hydrophobic domain at its N-terminus.

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