Hlaa2

apply to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an oncofetal protein expressed in norma) colon epithelium and in most gut carcinomas, that was recently shown to contain a peptide epitope recognized by T cells from immunized patients.

B cell lymphomas are monoclonal tumors derived from B cells. They express the idiotype corresponding to the antigen specificity of the parent B cell. Idiotypic immunoglobulins therefore represent a particular case of differentiation antigens that are unique to individual tumors. Such antigens, which need to be prepared individually for every patient, are being evaluated as vaccines for B cell lymphoma.

Antigens resulting from mutations

Antigens of the third category correspond to peptides derived from regions of ubiquitous proteins that are mutated in tumor cells (Table 4). The mutation cither generates a new epitope in the peptide or enables its binding to the MHC molecule. In most cases the mutation is unique to an individual tumor, and therefore the antigen is not shared. Other mutations occur in several tumors that may then share the antigen. The mutations may affect genes involved in cell regulation, such as p53 and CDK4, and thereby play a role in carcinogenesis. The great majority of mouse tumor antigens identified to date result from mutations. This may be due to the fact that many mouse tumors were induced with carcino

Peptide Position

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