Figure 1 Immune organs/cells known to be affected by sex steroids. These hormones can act during the development of immune cells, as well as directly on mature effector cells.

Higher in women Higher in women Decreased by estrogen plus progesterone Higher in women Ameliorated by androgen in mice Enhanced by progesterone in monkeys

Decreased by estrogen or androgen Higher in female mice Increased by estrogen in macrophages Higher in female mice Decreased by estrogen in bone marrow stromal cells Increased by estrogen in T cell clones Higher in female mice Increased by estrogen In T cell clones

Increased by estrogen in spleen cells

Decreased by androgens in T cells Increased by androgen in thymus Increased by estrogen in osteoblasts

B and T cells Macrophage

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