Immune cell interactions Cell-mediated immunity Tissue injury Proinflammatory

Phagocytosis/endocytosis e.g. antigens Local growth of m0 in immune lesions Giant cell formation - granulomata Healing of lesions

Diverse biosynthetic and secretory responses are protective, as well as injurious, and are tightly regulated

As a result of differentiation, recruitment, cytokine actions and plasma membrane stimuli, there are complex changes in Mo gene expression and secretory activities (Table 3). Intracellular signaling pathways in Mo are still poorly understood, as are the roles of myeloid-specific and other transcription factors that regulate gene expression by Mo in different functional states. Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) and related molecules have received much attention, mostly in simple model systems or cell lines rather than in primary Mo in situ. IFN-y, by itself, induces a range of changes in expression of Mo-specific and other genes, at the transcriptional level; inducible products such as TNFa, IL-1 (3 and IL-6 are controlled transcriptionally and translationally, as well as at post-translational stages, e.g. by processing at the cell surface mediated by specific metalloprotein-ases. Characteristic 3' AU-rich sequences contribute to instability of mRNA of several such inducible cytokines. Products such as lysozyme are more uniformly induced on activated Mo populations by

Table 2 Selected plasma membrane receptors of activated macrophages





FcR (several)

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