•Expressed as percentage reduction of infection compared with respective controls. Modified from Rickard ef a/ (1995).

•Expressed as percentage reduction of infection compared with respective controls. Modified from Rickard ef a/ (1995).

cDNA; the modified antigen (GST-45B/X) was also highly effective in vaccinating sheep. Field trials with T. ovis recombinant antigen GST-45B/X (Table 1), in conjunction with saponin, the most effective adjuvant, again provided encouragingly strong protection against infection and this formulation is currently commercially registered. GST-45B/X does not cross-protect against T. hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus or Taenia saginata and maternal antibody has been shown to interefere with development of immunity in vaccinated lambs. Other potentially protective, cloned T. ovis antigens (GST-16 and GST-18) have been identified, and it is likely that similar recombinant products could be developed against T. solium and T. saginata. Indeed, some cloned T. saginata and E. granulosus antigens are already under trial; with the latter, more than 95% protection has already been obtained in two separate trials with sheep.

See also: Echinococcus, infection and immunity; Molecular mimicry; Parasites, immunity to.

Further reading

Allan JC, Mencos R, Garcia-Noval J et al (1993) Dipstick dot ELISA for the detection of Taenia coproantigens in humans. Parasitology 107: 79-85. Flisser A (1988) Neurocysticercosis in Mexico. Parasitology Today 4: 131-137.

Johnson KS, Harrison GBL, Lightowlers MW et al (l989i Vaccination against ovine cysticercosis using a defined recombinant antigen. Nature 338: 585-587.

Kalinna B and McManus DP (1993) An lgG (Fc-y)-binding protein of Taenia crassiceps (Cesroda) exhibits sequence homology and antigenic similarity with schistosome paramyosin. Parasitology 106: 289-296.

Landa A, I.aclette JP, Nicholson-Wellcr A and Schoemakei CB (1993) cDNA cloning and recombinant expression of collagen-binding and complement inhibitor activity of Taenia solium paramyosin (AgB). Molecular and Biochemical Parsitology 60: 343-348.

Lightowlers MW and Rickard MD (1993) Vaccination against cestode parasites. Immunology and (. '.ell Biology 71: 443-451.

McManus DP and Bowles J (1994) Asian (Taiwan) Taenia-. species or strain. Parasitology Today 10: 273-275.

Rickard MD, Harrison GBL, Heath DD and Lightowlers MW (1995) Taenia ovis recombinant vaccine - 'quo vadit'. Parasitology 110: S5-9.

Smyth JD (1994) Introduction to Animal Parasitology. 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smyth JD and McManus DP (1989) The Physiology and Biochemistry of Cestodes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tsang VCW, Brand JA and Boyer AE (1989) An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis ('Taenia solium). Journal of Infectious Diseases 159: 50-59.

White AC, Robinson P and Kuhn R (1997) Taenia solium cysticercosis: host-parasite interactions and the immune response. Chemical Immunology 66: 209-230.

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