0.47 ± 0.24

SE, standard error.

SE, standard error.

as produced by the intercrossing of eight inbred strains of mice, and the character chosen for the assortative mating was the number of papillomas at the end of the promotion period. Susceptible (Car-S) and resistant (Car-R) lines of mice separated by ten consecutive generations of bidirectional selective breeding display a very large difference in responsiveness to carcinogenesis (Table 4). The dominance effect (d/a) = 0.38) measured in (Car-S x Car-R)F1 hybrids indicates that the susceptibility of papilloma induction is an incompletely dominant character. The difference between Car-S and Car-R lines is restricted to the skin, implying that the selected genes produce a tissue-specific effect.

See also: Immune response (Ir) genes. Further reading

Bangrazi C, Mouton D, Neveu T et al (1990) Genetics of chemical carcinogenesis. I. Bidirectional selective breeding of susceptible and resistant lines of mice to two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 11, 1711— 1719.

Biozzi G, Stiffel C, Mouton D, Bouthillier Y and Decreuse-fond C (1968) Selection artificielle pour la production d'anticorps chez la souris. Annates d'lmmunologie de I'lnstitut Pasteur 115: 965-967. Biozzi G, Mouton D, Sant'Anna OA et al (1979) Genetics of immunoresponsiveness to natural antigens in the mouse. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 85: 31-98. Biozzi G, Siqueira M, Stiffel C et al (1980) Genetic selections for relevant immunological functions. In: Foug-ereau M and Dausset J (eds) Immunology 1980. Progress in Immunology, vol IV, pp 432-457. London: Academic Press. Biozzi G, Mouton D, Stiffel C and Bouthillier Y (1984) Major role of macrophage in quantitative genetic regulation of immunoresponsiveness and anti-infectious immunity. Advances in immunology 36: 189-234. Covelli V, Marini S, Di Majo V et al (1984) Life-span, tumor incidence, and natural killer activity in mice selected for high or low antibody responsiveness, journal of the National Cancer Institute 72: 1127-1 136.

Covelli V, Di Majo V, Bassani B et al (1985) Spontaneous lymphomas in mice genetically selected for high or low PHA responsiveness. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 75: 1083-1090.

Covelli V, Mouton D, Di Majo V et al (1989) Inheritance of immune responsiveness, life span, and disease incidence in interline crosses of mice selected for high or low multispecific antibody production. Journal of Immunology 142: 1224-1234.

Covelli V, Coppola M, Di Majo V et al (1995) Life span and lymphoma incidence in high or low antibody responder mice from selection GS. Aging: Immunology and Infectious Diseases 6: 95-106.

Doria G, Biozzi G, Mouton D et al (1997) Genetic control of immune responsiveness, aging and tumor incidence. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 96: 1-13.

Ibanez OM, Stiffel C, Ribeiro OG et al (1992) Genetics of nonspecific immunity: I. Bidirectional selective breedings of lines of mice endowed with maximal or minimal inflammatory responsiveness. European Journal of Immunology 22: 2555-2563.

Mouton D, Sequeira M, Sant'Anna OA et al (1988) Genetic regulation of multispecific antibody responsiveness: improvement of 'high' and 'low' characters. European Journal of Immunology 18: 41—49.

Puel A, Groot PC, Lathrop MG et al (1995) Mapping of genes controlling quantitative antibody production in Biozzi mice. Journal of Immunology 154: 5799-5805.

Puel A, Meuel JC, Bouthillier Y et al (1996) Toward genetic dissection of high and low antibody responsiveness in Biozzi mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 93: 14742-14746.

Saran A, Bouthillier Y, Pioli C et al (1996) Genetics of chemical carcinogenesis - III. Tissue-specificity of the genes controlling susceptibility and resistance to skin carcinogenesis in the mouse. Carcinogenesis 17: 2463-2468.

Stiffel C, Liacopoulos-Briot M, Decreusefond C et al (1977) Genetic selection of mice for quantitative responsiveness of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin. European Journal of Immunology 7: 291-297.

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