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Immunodiffusion test Antigen Antibody in gel

Simple diffusion

Immunodiffusion test Antigen Antibody in gel

Antigen

Antibody

Double diffusion

Figure 2 Complex serological system containing a set of five antigen-antibody systems of different specificities analyzed by tube flocculation (serial dilution) and immunodiffusion precipitation (concentration gradient) techniques.

whereas for rabbit immune sera reacting with polysaccharide antigens, the point of maximum precipitation is less distinct and complete inhibition is generally seen at excess of antigen.

In the flocculation reaction, which is very similar to the precipitation reaction except that the aggregates are formed as flocculent masses, the time at which visible aggregates appear is used for the evaluation of the serological system to be assayed. Flocculation is most rapid when the reactants are in approximately equal proportions (-Ropt) for the formation of aggregates. This information, denoted as flocculation time (Lf), can be used for quantitative determinations. Either side of Ropr, flocculation proceeds more slowly and inhibition occurs when antigen is in excess and, for certain systems, also when antibody is in excess, as illustrated in Figure 2. The analytical procedure used to determine reaction velocity during flocculation is also applicable to precipitation reactions.

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