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Table 2 Agents frequently employed in transplant conditioning regimens

Total body irradiation Cyclophosphamide Etoposide Melphalan

Cytosine arabinoside Thiotepa

Bischlorethylnitrosurea (BCNU) Carboplatin replacing CY with other agents used in conjunction with TBI, or the use of regimens based on chemotherapy alone (Table 2). For autologous transplants where host immunosuppression is not required, multidrug regimens are often used. Despite a wide array of possible conditioning regimens that have been tested, no significant advances on the basic TBI-based regimens have been demonstrated to date.

Recombinant cytokines

Many cytokines have been identified that act on hematopoietic and immune cells (Table 3). Potential useful effects include stimulating hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, 'mobilization' of progenitors into the blood for collection, and stimulation of an immune recovery and antitumor activity. Cytokines currently in clinical use include G-CSF, GM-CSF, erythropoietin, interferon a and interleukin 2 (IL-2).

Table 3 Recombinant cytokines with a potential clinical role in stem cell transplantation

Hematopoietic growth factorsa Immunomodulatory factorsa

GM-CSFb G-CSF" Erythropoietin13 Interleukin 1 Interleukin 3 Interleukin 6 Interleukin 8 Interleukin 11 Stem cell factor Thrombopoietin FLT3/FLK2 ligand Leukemia inhibitory factor Oncostatin

Interferon a" Interleukin 2b M-CSF Interferon -y Interleukin 4 Interleukin 7 Interleukin 10 Interleukin 12

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