Mechanisms of cytolysis

Recent advances in studies of the mechanism of C TL cytolytic effector function have resolved a longstanding controversy. Two opposing hypotheses, the cytolytic granule exocytosis mechanism and the cal-cium-independent, perforin-independent mechanism are now known to be independent or overlapping but not mutually exclusive mechanisms. The granule exocytosis hypothesis describes the cytolytic event as resulting from a calcium-dependent secretion of cytoplasmic granules into the extracellular space bounded by the cytotoxic T cell membrane/target membrane junction. The perforin inserts into the target cell membrane and forms pores through which granzymes are introduced into the target cell allowing for events that result in target cell apoptosis and nuclear DNA fragmentation. In 1993, the mechanism of Fas ligand/Fas-mediated cytolysis

IL-2R|iy signal 2

IL-2R|iy signal 2

signal 2

Figure 1 Induction of CD8' and CD4' cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

signal 2

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