Renal Infections

Guy Neild, Institute of Urology and Nephrology, UCL Hospitals, University College London, London, UK

The principal infections of the kidney and urinary tract occur in either the renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis) or in the bladder (cystitis). Other, or connecting, parts of the urinary tract may be specifically involved as in urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis, or as part of a more widespread process, e.g. tuberculous ureteritis.

Patients with renal disease may be prone to urinary infection because of anatomic or pathological abnormalities which lead to stasis of urine (e.g. retention of urine in the bladder), or are more prone to infections in general because of 1) uremic immunosuppression, 2) concomitant immunosuppressive treatment (e.g. transplant recipients), 3) malnutrition, 4) iron overload (in patients after multiple blood transfusions), or 5) concomitant systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus.

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