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Further reading

Bernstein RM, Schluter SF, Shen S and Marchalonis JJ (1996) A new high molecular weight immunoglobulin class from the carcharhine shark: implications for the properties of the primordial immunoglobulin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 93: 3289-3293.

Bernstein RM, Schluter SF, Bernstein H and Marchalonis JJ (1996) Primordial emergence of the recombination activating gene 1 (RAG-1): sequence of the complete shark gene indicates homology to microbial integrases. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the USA 93: 9454-9459.

DuPasquier L (1993) Evolution of the immune response. In: Paul WE (ed) Fundamental Immunology, 3rd edn, pp 199-233, Raven Press, New York.

Greenberg AS, Hughes AL, Guo J, Avila D, McKinney EC and Flajnik MF (1996) A novel 'chimeric' antibody class in cartilaginous fish. IgM may not be primordial immunoglobulin. European Journal of Immunology 26: 1123-1129.

Hohman VS, Schluter SF and Marchalonis JJ (1995) Diver sity of immunoglobulin light chain clusters in the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus). Journal of Immunology 155: 3922-2928.

Lai E, Wilson RK and Hood LE (1989) Physical maps of the mouse and human immunoglobulin-like loci. Advances in Immunology 46: 1-59.

Litman GW, Shamblott MJ, Haire RN and Amemiya CT (1990) Phylogenetic origins and diversification of immunoglobulin genes. In: Marchalonis JJ and Reinisch CL (eds) Defense Molecules, pp 281-294. New York: Alan R Liss.

Litman GW, Rast JP, Shamblott MK, Hairs RN, Hülst M, Roess W (1993) Phylogenetic diversification of immunoglobulin genes and the antibody repertoire. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10: 60-72.

Marchalonis JJ, Bernstein RM, Shen SX and Schluter SF (1996) Emergence of the immunoglobulin family: conservation in protein sequence and plasticity in gene organization Glycobiology 6: 657-663.

McCormack WT and Thompson CB (1990) Somatic diversification of the chicken immunoglobulin light-chain gene. Advances in Immunology 48: 41-67.

Rast JP, Haire RN, Litman RT, Pross S and Litman GW (1995) Identification and characterization of T-cell antigen receptor-related genes in phylogenetically diverse vertebrate species. Immunogenetics 42: 204-212.

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