The role of TNFa in development

TNFa is expressed during embryonic development. Some of the TNFa functions are important in normal embryogenesis, such as apoptosis. Furthermore, TNFa is important as a growth and differentiation factor, comparable to its function in hematopoiesis. In addition, TNFa plays a critical role in remodeling extracellular matrix and in the induction of cell adhesion molecules and integrins. TNFa promotes liver regeneration by promoting hepatocvte-specific gene expression. Despite this, TNFtx is known to enhance ubiquitin.

The involvement of TNFa in development starts before embryogenesis. TNFa induces ovulation and enhances luteinizing hormone (l.H)-induced ovulation. Soluble TNFR is increased in the blood of pregnant women and also in amniotic fluid and umbilical serum. However, not only does TNFa have an effect on reproduction but also sexual hormones have an effect on TNFa production. Estradiol and progesterone enhance TNFa release by macrophages, whereas testosterone has no effect. This may be one possible reason for the higher incidence of autoimmune diseases in women.

tgt gaa ttc: CGC. GTG ATT TCA CTC CCG GCT GTC CAG GTC TGT CCT kB enhancer 2/CK-l

GCT ACC CCA CCC AGC CTT TCC TGA GGC CTC AAG CCT GCC ACC AAG -528 -484

CCC CCA GCT CCT TCT CCC CGC AGG ACC CAA ACA GAG GCC TCA GGA -483 -439

GTC AAC ACA GTC TTT CCC TCC AAC CCG TTT TCT CTC CCT CAA CGG -438 -394

ACT CAG CTT TCT GAA GCC CCT CCC AGT TCT AGT TCT ATC TTT TTC -393 -349

CTG CAT CCT GTC TC.r. AAqa TTA GAA GGA AAC AGA CCA CAG ACC TGG kB enhancer 3

TCC CCA aaa GAA ATG GAG GCA ATA GGT TTT GAG GGC CAT Gw.G GAC -303 -259

GGG GTT CAG CCT CCA GGG TCC TAC ACA CAA ATC AGT CAG TGG CCC -258 -214

AGA aga ccc CCC TCC, gaa tc,,. gag cag GGA GGA TGG GGA GTG TGA

TNF repressor site (TRS) -213 -169

GGG GTA TCC TTG ATG CTT GTG TGT CCC CAA CTT TCC AAA TCC CCG -168 -124

CCC CGv. CGA TC.G AGA AGA AAC CGA GAC AGA AGG TGC AGG GCC CAC

Y-Box Ets site

TAC CGC ttc CTC cag atc. acc tca tgg gtt tct cca CCA AGG AAG

Ets site CK-1 AP-l/ATF NT AT k3

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