Toxic structural components of gramnegative bacteria endotoxin

Endotoxins are well-recognized structural entities possessing microbial functions; they are lipopolysac-charide (LPS) in nature and are located in the outer membrane of gram-negative organisms (Figure 8). (The only lethal membrane-associated protein toxin is the complex guinea pig toxin of Yersinia pestis.)

Endotoxins are not primary determinants in initiating infection. The guts of healthy animals, including humans, are full of gram-negative organisms and their components which are normally not absorbed in quantity; small amounts are detoxified by liver Kupffer cells. But they are important in diseases caused by invasive pathogens: typhoid, tularemia, plague, brucellosis, and a variety of hospital-acquired infections caused by opportunistic gram-negative pathogens which include E. coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Serratia and Klebsiella spp. In addition, endotoxin has been extensively studied as a possible causative agent of shock arising from

Gram neqalrve cell

Gram neqalrve cell

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