The peripheral nervous system

Diseases causing peripheral neuropathies may affect motor, sensory and autonomic neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Several congenital, inherited and acquired diseases affect the LMN and there may be significant variation in clinical signs. Involvement of motor fibres usually manifests as muscle tremor, muscle atrophy and weakness. Involvement of sensory nerves results in proprioceptive deficits, ataxia, anaesthesia, hyperaesthesia or paresthesias. Spinal reflexes are depressed or absent...

Miscellaneous conditions Acne

Feline acne is a well-recognised clinical entity with a poorly understood pathogenesis, although the current view is that it represents a form of keratinisation disorder with secondary bacterial infection. Lesions are usually localised to the chin, but may also be located on the upper and lower lips and commissures of the lips (White et al., 1997). Clinical signs may include pruritus, although this is not a consistent finding in some cases the signs of acne are part of a variety of clinical...

Feline atopy

Atopic disease of domestic animals has been defined as the inherited predisposition to develop IgE antibodies to environmental allergens, resulting in allergic disease (Halliwell & Gorman, 1989). The condition in dogs has been thoroughly reviewed by a task force of the American College of Veterinary Dermatology (Olivry etal, 2001). The nomenclature used for the dog ought to be considered for use in the feline condition. The condition of feline atopic disease has been reported and reviewed on...

M ucopolysaccharidosis

The mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of genetic diseases that result from defects in the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans (Thrall, 2001). Two substances Table 7.11 Lysosomal storage disorders of cats Table 7.11 Lysosomal storage disorders of cats Siamese, Korat and other cats 3-6 months Ataxia, head tremors, spastic quadriparesis lipofuscinosis (amaurotic familial idiocy) P-phenylenediamine-mediated peroxidase Globoid cell leucodystrophy (Krabbe's disease) Macrophages (globoid cells) In white...

Demodicosis

Demodicosis has been reported as an uncommon disease associated with a variety of dermatological manifestations, including ceruminous otitis externa localised alopecia, erythema, scaling, crusting and pyoderma of the head, neck and ears and generalised alopecia, erythema, variable scaling, papulocrusting dermatitis and secondary pyoderma. Clinical disease has been reported in cases associated with two species of mite. The long, slender form, Demodex cati, has been reported since the...

Therapeutic protocols for feline allergic skin disease

In many cases the pruritic (and presumed allergic) cat has to be managed with medical therapy because a definitive diagnosis has not been achieved despite measures to implement effective flea control, the pursuit of diet trials and tests for allergen-specific IgE. The clinician is then left with the obligation to try and make the disease manageable without causing problems from adverse drug reactions. The mainstay of therapy for allergic and pruritic cats has been a heavily reliance on the use...

Hereditary noninflammatory myopathies

These are inherited progressive non-inflammatory myopathies. Several are reported in cats and for some diseases the molecular and biochemical defects have been defined. Dystrophin-deficient myopathy is a rare disease caused by an almost total lack of dystrophin, a large protein indirectly connecting the internal cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix. Dystrophin deficiency is due to a mutation in the dystrophin gene, a very large gene located on the X-chromosome, and is transmitted...

Fibrosarcoma

There are three variants of this type of tumour. Feline sarcoma virus infection may be associated with simultaneous infection with FeLV and the development of an aggressive form of multiple fibrosarcoma in cats less than 5 years of age. The tumours are rapidly growing, firm and often attached to adjacent tissues. Treatment is not recommended and the prognosis for this uncommon tumour is grave. Solitary fibrosarcomas of older cats (> 8 years old) tend to be firm, slow growing and poorly...

Evaluation of the forelimbs thoracolumbar spine hindlimbs and tail

Spinal reflex testing assesses the reflex arc and cord segments in which the reflexes are involved (Table 7.7). All reflexes are modified or co-ordinated by higher centres. The examination of spinal reflexes is best performed when the cat is in lateral recumbancy, gently restrained by an assistant. Flexor reflex abnormalities include areflexia, hyporeflexia, hyperreflexia, clonus and a crossed extensor response. Flexor reflex (withdrawal) The interdigital skin is pinched and the foot observed...

Acquired myopathies

Polymyositis has been associated with infectious diseases (toxoplasmosis and retroviral infections), thymoma and immune-mediated diseases, and may occur concurrently with myasthenia gravis (MG). Toxoplasma gondii may cause myositis in cats. It occurs most frequendy in association with postnatal infection, and there may be associated clinical signs referable to other organ systems, including the eyes and CNS. Serum CK is usually elevated. The administration of corticosteroids or concurrent...

Ischaemic encephalopathy

Figure 7.12 Ventroflexion of the neck - a cat with thiamine deficiency. (Reproduced from Shaer, 2002, with permission of Manson Publishing.) Figure 7.12 Ventroflexion of the neck - a cat with thiamine deficiency. (Reproduced from Shaer, 2002, with permission of Manson Publishing.) where thiamin has been destroyed by excessive cooking or by the addition of preservatives (e.g. sulfur dioxide). Thiamin deficiency results in abnormal glucose metabolism in the brain, encephalopathy and haemorrhage...

Paraneoplastic syndromes

The skin may be affected in a variety of ways, both clinically and histologically, by underlying disease processes. In paraneoplastic disease a tumour process has an indirect effect on the skin without invading the skin. In recent years several syndromes have been recognised that have cutaneous manifestations for underlying neoplastic processes. The pathogenesis of such syndromes is poorly understood. This syndrome is also termed 'shiny cat syndrome' because of the profound shiny appearance of...

Discoid lupus erythematosus

Although discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is well recognised as a dermatological entity in dogs it is rarely reported in cats. There is no apparent age, sex or breed predisposition. Clinical signs consist of periocular crusts, erythema, vesicles and papules on the pinnae, and scaling and crusting of the footpads with focal depigmentation. There may be plaque-like erythematous excoriations involving the pinnae, neck, abdomen and groin, or generalised crusting and scaling. Skin biopsies have...

Complications of chemotherapy

A number of complications can arise while an animal is receiving chemotherapy. Many of the intravenous injectable agents are either irritant or vesicant if perivascular injection occurs and prompt action should be taken (see below). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions can happen with some drugs. Cytotoxic drugs are not specific to tumour cells in their action and normal body tissues that contain a large proportion of dividing cells, such as the bone marrow and the epithelium of the...

Evaluation of posture gait and strength

The patient is observed at rest for abnormalities in body posture and limb position and tone. Increased muscle tone is judged by increased resistance to flexion. The claws are checked for wear and for scars indicating previous trauma. The skeleton is palpated for crepitus, masses, deviation of the normal contour and motion (e.g. fractures and luxations). The muscles are palpated to check for size and symmetry. Abnormal body posture may be due to a congenital or an acquired lesion in the...

Further reading

Allwood M., Stanley A. & Wright P. (eds) (2002) The Cytotoxics Handbook. 4th edn. Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxford. Chun R., Garrett L. & MacEwen E.G. (2001) Cancer chemotherapy. In Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 3rd edn. (eds Withrow S.J. & MacEwen E.G.). WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, Chapter 9, pp. 92-118. COSHH Regulations (1988) Approved Code of Practice Con trol of Substances Hazardous to Health and Approved Code of Practice Control of Carcinogenic Substances, 3rd edn. COSHH,...

Malassezia

Malassezia infection in the cat has become a recognised entity in recent years. Malassezia pachydermatis is an opportunistic yeast pathogen that may be associated with significant skin disease. Predisposing factors for its establishment may include alterations in skin microclimate associated with underlying allergic skin disease or chronic glucocorticoid and antibacterial therapy for allergic skin diseases. There may be a breed predisposition for cats with abnormal hair coats, such as sphinx...

Acquired neuropathies

Some cats with diabetes mellitus develop a distal polyneuropathy, usually involving the hindlimbs. There is a plantigrade posture, and progressive paresis, hyporeflexia, muscle atrophy and depressed patellar reflexes (Figure 7.14). Some cats are hyperaes-thetic and irritable when handled or touched. Proprioception may be impaired. Most cats are poly-dipsic and polyuric, with fasting hyperglycaemia and glucosuria. Many present with hindlimb weakness but have not been diagnosed with diabetes...

Clinical pathology

Haematology and biochemistry are essential in most investigations. There are many systemic disorders in which neurological signs predominate and that have characteristic clinicopathological changes, for example, hypergammaglobulaemia in, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), hypokalaemia and portosystemic shunts. Clinical pathology is of less value in the diagnosis of primary nervous diseases. Urinalysis may help occasionally with specific diseases (e.g. glucose present in diabetes mellitus and...

Clinical signs and diagnosis

The clinical sign common to all neuromuscular diseases in the cat is weakness. The affected cat is frequently 'floppy', often with ventroflexion of the neck and reduced muscle tone (Figure 7.20). Muscle atrophy is expected, but in some dystrophies (e.g. myotonia and X-linked dystrophy), muscle hypertrophy is present. The severity of the weakness may be variable and muscle involvement can be focal. Disorders of the neuromuscular junction present with varying clinical signs ranging from weakness...

Sacrocaudal dysgenesis in Manx cats

Rectal Deformity Kittens

Manx cats have varying degrees of sacral and or caudal vertebral deformities. Some tailless cats have a normal sacrum, spinal cord and cauda equina. Others show varying dysgenesis or agenesis of the sacral and or caudal vertebrae that may be associated with spina bifida, malformations of the terminal spinal cord and cauda equina. Spinal cord malformations include the absence or partial development of sacral and caudal spinal cord segments or cauda equina, myelodysplasia, meningocele,...

Erythema multiforme and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Erythema multiforme is a rare disease in the cat and is usually associated with drug administration, particularly cephalexin, penicillin, aurothioglucose and sulfadiazine. The disease in humans is associated with drug administration, viral diseases and neoplasia. The pathogenesis of the feline disease may be similar to that observed in the dog, with up-regulation of the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD44 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on keratinocytes. CD8+...

Papulocrusting dermatitis miliary dermatitis

The clinical diagnosis of miliary dermatitis is readily made from the observation and palpation of the typical skin lesions of an erythematous papulocrusting eruption along the back, neck and ventrum. The lesions resemble millet seeds and the disease derives its name from this similarity (Plate 6.11). It is possible for the cat to be very pruritic with this condition and there may also be early-stage eosinophilic plaques on the ventrum. Miliary dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction pattern a...

Otodectic mange Otodectes cynotis

This mite is the common cause of otitis externa and pinnal dermatitis in the cat. Otodectes is a free-living surface mite, which lives in the external ear canal where it feeds on epidermal debris and tissue fluids. The mites cause mechanical irritation and there may be a hypersensitivity response to mite and or mite-derived products. The mites are a major cause of otitis externa occasionally they can be found beyond the ear canal, including the head, neck, dorsum and tailhead regions, where...

References

Baxby D. amp Bennett M. 1997 Cowpox a re-evaluation of the risks of human cowpox based on new epidemiological information. Arch Virol S13,1-12. Beale K.M. amp Fujioka C. 2001 Effectiveness of selamectin in the treatment of Notoedres cati infestation in cats Abstract . Vet Dermatol 12,237. Beale K.M. amp Rustemeyer-May E. 2001 Selamectin in the treatment of feline Demodex Abstract . Vet Dermatol 12,237. Ben-Ziony Y. amp Arzi B. 2000 Use of Lufenuron for treating fungal infections of dogs and...

Otitis externa

The external ear canal and pinna may be affected in a variety of conditions, including infectious bacterial, yeast and dermatophyte , allergic food allergy, atopy, Otodectes hypersensitivity, contact and drug reactions , parasitic Otodectes, trombiculids, Demodex, Notoedres and neoplastic actinic dermatitis, SCC, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, adenoma and adenocarcinoma, nasopharyngeal polyps . Many of these conditions are discussed elsewhere in this chapter. Signs of ear disease may include...

Mural folliculitis

Mural folliculitis is a term that denotes a new syndrome recognised in cats. The common histological theme is lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltrate of the hair follicle in the outer sheath in the isthmus and infundibular regions. The infiltrate may extend to the epidermis, including neutrophils and eosinophils, and the follicles may be ablated by a pyogranuloma-tous inflammation leading to atrophy. The main presenting clinical signs include generalised alopecia and scaling. There are five...

Idiopathic facial dermatitis of Persian cats

This disease has been termed dirty face syndrome by some clinicians. It is a poorly understood condition that is recognised in the Persian breed only, with no clear underlying aetiology, and provides a considerable challenge to the clinician to manage Bond et al., 2000 . The presenting clinical signs are observed in Persian cats and in an initial case series the age of onset ranged from 4 months to 5 years. The dermato-logical examination reveals black waxy material on the distal portion of the...

Criteria to be fulfilled before starting chemotherapy

Histological diagnosis and grading of the tumour malignancy must be confirmed and the tumour should be documented as sensitive to chemotherapy. Clinical staging to determine the extent of disease this is important prognostically before starting treatment. Patient considerations the temperament of the cat is an important factor to consider before embarking on a course of chemotherapy, as treatment will require frequent transportation to the veterinary clinic and regular blood sampling for...

Salicylates

Although acetylsalicylic acid can be well tolerated by the cat in carefully controlled dosages, toxicity can arise when owners administer excessively high dose rates at home. The half-life of acetylsalicyclic acid is exceptionally long in feline plasma 3 40 h . As such, the administration of aspirin to cats is normally accompanied by an extended interdosage interval. The clinical signs of aspirin toxicity include vomiting, depression and tachypnoea, with occasional cases also exhibiting an...

Vaccination schedules

Most data sheets recommend primary vaccination for kittens followed by annual boosters thereafter. Such regimens maximise protection for the individual and are generally based on both experimental challenge studies and field data provided by the manufacturer. However, in recent years there has been considerable discussion as to whether such schedules are always appropriate, largely because of concerns about possible safety issues. These issues have been particularly highlighted by the...

Types of vaccine

Cat vaccines generally comprise either modified live, or inactivated killed adjuvanted vaccines administered subcutaneously Table 2.1 . Modified live vaccines have been attenuated or altered to eliminate or reduce their virulence. Attenuation can be achieved in a number of ways, including serial passage in cell culture in the laboratory or by genetic manipulation, or by the choice of a naturally occurring apathogenic strain. Live vaccines have the disadvantage of an increased possibility of...