Fungal endocarditis is usually encountered when there are preexisting risk factors such as intravenous drug use, prior cardiac surgery, immunosuppression, intravenous hyper-alimentation, antibiotic therapy, long-term venous catheters, pacemakers, defibrillators, and other intravascular devices . Fungi may infect either native or prosthetic valves. The common organisms are Candida and Aspergillus. Classical clinical manifestations of bacterial IE are often absent. Fungal infected thrombi are usually quite large and friable (Figure 2.10) [2,27]. Valve orifice obstruction leading to clinical valve stenosis may occur if the size of the thrombus is large [14,17,28,29]. Embolic events are not unusual and blood cultures are often negative . The organs receiving the emboli frequently develop abscesses .
Was this article helpful?
The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.