1. Veinot JP, Walley VM. Focal and patchy cardiac valve lesions: A clinicopathological review. Can J Cardiol 2000;16(12):1489-1507.

2. LeSaux N, Veinot JP, Masters RG, Stinson WA, Walley VM. The surgical pathology of infective endocarditis. J Surg Path 1997;2:223-232.

3. Durack DT. Prevention of infective endocarditis. New Engl J Med 1995;332:38-44.

4. Arnett EN, Roberts WC. Pathology of active infective endocarditis: A necropsy analysis of 192 patients. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1982;30:327-335.

5. McKinsey DA, Ratts TE, Bisno AL. Underlying cardiac lesions in adults with infective endocarditis: The changing spectrum. Am J Med 1987;82:681-688.

6. Shafran SD. Infective endocarditis and perivalvular abscess: A dangerous duo. Can Med Assoc J 2002; 167(1):38-39.

7. Steckelberg JM, Wilson WR. Risk factors for infective endocarditis. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 1993;7:9-19.

8. Roberts WC, Kishel JC, Mcintosh CL, Cannon RO, Maron BJ. Severe mitral or aortic valve regurgitation, or both, requiring valve replacement for infective endocarditis complicating hypertrophic cardiomyopa-thy. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;19:365-371.

9. Atkinson JB, Virmani R. Infective endocarditis: Changing trends and general approach for examination. Hum Pathol 1987;18:603-608.

10. Auclair F. Update on pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Cardiovasc Pathol 1995;4(4):265-268.

11. Baddour LM, Bettmann MA, Bolger AF, et al. Nonvalvular cardiovascular device-related infections. Circulation 108 (16):2015-2031, 2003.

12. Ford SE, Manley PN. Indwelling cardiac catheters: An autopsy study of associated endocardial lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1982;106:314-317.

13. Sage MD, Koelmeyer TD, Smeeton WMI, Galler LL. Evolution of Swan-Ganz catheter-related pulmonary valve nonbacterial endocarditis. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1988;9:112-118.

14. Ellis M. Fungal endocarditis. J Infect 1997;35(2):99-103.

15. Ducatman BS, McMichan J, Edwards WD. Catheter-induced lesions of the right side of the heart: A one year prospective study of 141 autopsies. JAMA 1985;253: 791-795.

16. Arber N, Pras E, Copperman Y, et al. Pacemaker endocarditis. Report of 44 cases and review of the literature. Medicine 1994;73:299-305.

17. Rubinstein E, Lang R. Fungal endocarditis. Eur Heart J 1995;16:Suppl-9.

18. Greub G, Lepidi H, Rovery C, et al. Diagnosis of infectious endocarditis in patients undergoing valve surgery. Am J Med 2005;118(3):230-238.

19. Berbari EF, Cockerill FR, Steckelberg JM. Infective endocarditis due to unusual or fastidious microorganisms. Mayo Clin Proc 1997;72(6):532-542.

20. Tunkel AR, Kaye D. Endocarditis with negative blood cultures. NEJM 1992;326:1215-1217.

21. Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, et al. Infective endocarditis: Diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on rheumatic Fever, endocarditis, and Kawasaki disease, council on cardiovascular disease in the young, and the councils on clinical cardiology, stroke, and cardiovascular surgery and anesthesia, American Heart Association— executive summary: endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Circulation 2005;111(23): 3167-3184.

22. Bayer AS, Bolger AF, Taubert KA, et al. Diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis and its complications. Circulation 1998;98(25):2936-2948.

23. Breitkopf C, Hammel D, Scheld HH, Peters G, Becker K. Impact of a molecular approach to improve the microbiological diagnosis of infective heart valve endocarditis. Circulation 2005;111(11):1415-1421.

24. Rice PA, Madico GE. Polymerase chain reaction to diagnose infective endocarditis: Will it replace blood cultures? Circulation 2005;111(11):1352-1354.

25. Fernicola DJ, Roberts WC. Clinicopathologic features of active infective endocarditis isolated to the native mitral valve. Am J Cardiol 1993;71:1186-1197.

26. Walsh TJ, Hutchins GM, Bulkley BH, Mendelsohn G. Fungal infections of the heart: Analysis of 51 autopsy cases. Am J Cardiol 1980;45(2):357-366.

27. Isotalo PA, Chan KL, Rubens F, Beanlands DS, Auclair F, Veinot JP. Prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis due to Histoplasmosis. Can J Cardiol 2001;17(3):297-303.

28. Atkinson JB, Connor DH, Robinowitz M, McAllister HA, Virmani R. Cardiac fungal infections: Review of autopsy findings in 60 patients. Hum Pathol 1984; 15(10):935-942.

29. Muehrcke DD. Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis. Seminars in Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1995; 7:20-24.

30. McAllister HAJ, Fenoglio JJ, Jr. Cardiac involvement in Whipple's disease. Circulation 1975;52:152-156.

31. Khairy P, Graham AF. Whipple's disease and the heart. Can J Cardiol 1996;12:831-834.

32. Bostwick DG, Bensch KG, Burke JS, et al. Whipple's disease presenting as aortic insufficiency. N Engl J Med 1981;305(17):995-998.

33. Chan KL. Early clinical course and long-term outcome of patients with infective endocarditis complicated by perivalvular abscess. CMA J 2002;167(1):19-24.

34. Piper C, Hetzer R, Korfer R, Bergemann R, Horstkotte D. The importance of secondary mitral valve involvement in primary aortic valve endocarditis. The mitral kissing vegetation. Eur Heart J 2002;23(1):79-86.

35. Isotalo PA, Mai KT, Stinson WA, Veinot JP. Mitral annular calcification with Staphylococcus aureus peri-annular abscess. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124(6):924.

36. Pomerance A. Acquired non-rheumatic valvular and endocardial pathology. In Sommers SC, Rosen PP (eds): Pathology Annual, Part 2. 1977, pp 151-187.

37. Carpentier AF, Pellerin M, Fuzellier JF, Relland JY. Extensive calcification of the mitral valve anulus: pathology and surgical management. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1996;111(4): 718-29;:discussion 729-3.

38. Giannoccaro PJ, Ascah KJ, Chan KL, Walley VM. Left atrial mass produced by extensive mitral annular calcification. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1991;4:619-622.

39. Aronow WS, Koenigsberg M, Kronzon I, Gutstein H. Association of mitral anular calcium with new thromboembolic stroke and cardiac events at 39-month follow-up in elderly patients. Am J Cardiol 1990;65: 1511-1512.

40. Teja K, Gibson RS, Nolan SP. Atrial extension of mitral annular calcification mimicking intracardiac tumor. Clin Cardiol 1987;10:546-548.

41. Burnside JW, DeSanctis RW. Bacterial endocarditis on calcification of the mitral annulus fibrosus. Ann Intern Med 1972;76:615-618.

42. Allwork SP. The anatomical basis of infection of the aortic root. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1986;34:143-148.

43. Anderson DJ, Bulkley BH, Hutchins GM. A clinico-pathologic study of prosthetic valve endocarditis in 22 patients: Morphologic basis for diagnosis and therapy. Am Heart J 1977;94:325-333.

44. Wilson WR, Danielson GK, Giuliani ER, Geraedts JE. Prosthetic valve endocarditis. Mayo Clin Proc 1982;57:155-161.

45. Arnett EN, Roberts WC. Prosthetic valve endocarditis: Clinicopathologic analysis of 22 necropsy patients with comparison observations in 74 necropsy patients with active infective endocarditis involving natural left-sided cardiac valves. Am J Cardiol 1976;38(3): 281-292.

46. Watanakunakorn C. Prosthetic valve infective endocarditis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1979;22(3):181-192.

47. Morel-Maroger L, Sraer JD, Herreman G, Godeau P. Kidney in subacute endocarditis: Pathological and immunofluoresence findings. Arch Pathol 1972;94: 205-213.

48. Thuny F, Disalvo G, Belliard O, et al. Risk of embolism and death in infective endocarditis: Prognostic value of echocardiography: A prospective multicenter study. Circulation 2005;112(1):69-75.

49. Pruitt AA, Rubin RH, Karchmer AW, Duncan GW. Neurological complications of bacterial endocarditis. Medicine 1978;57:329-343.

50. Lowenstein MB, Urman JD, Abeles M, Weinstein A. Skin immunofluoresence in infective endocarditis. JAMA 1977;238:1163-1165.

51. Weinstein L. Life-threatening complication of infective endocarditis and their management. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:953-957.

Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

Prevention is better than a cure. Learn how to cherish your heart by taking the necessary means to keep it pumping healthily and steadily through your life.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment