1. Flint A. Chapter VIII. Inflammatory affections of the heart—Endocarditis-Myocarditis. In Flint A (ed): Diseases of the Heart. Philadelphia: Blanchard & Lea, 1859, pp. 371-99.

2. Major RH. Notes on the history of endocarditis. Bull Hist Med 1945;17:351-9.

3. Osler W. The Principles and Practice of Medicine: Designed for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Medicine. 1st edition. New York: Appleton, 1892.

4. Osler W. Chronic infectious endocarditis. QJ Med 1909;2:219-230

5. Osler W. The Principles and Practice of Medicine: Designed for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Medicine. 8th edition. New York: Appleton, 1912.

6. Osler W. The Principles and Practice of Medicine: Designed for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Medicine. 10th edition. New York: Appleton, 1925.

7. Osler W. The Principles and Practice of Medicine: Designed for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Medicine. 14th edition. New York: Appleton, 1942.

8. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005.

9. Mermel LA, Maki DG. Detection of bacteremia in adults: Consequences of culturing an inadequate volume of blood. Ann Intern Med 1993 Aug 15;119(4):270-2.

10. Werner AS, Cobbs CG, Kaye D, et al. Studies on the bacteremia of bacterial endocarditis. JAMA 1967; 202:199.

11. Parker MT, Ball LC. Streptococci and aerococci associated with systemic infection in man. J Med Microbiol 1976 Aug;9(3):275-302.

12. Anderson DJ, Murdoch DR, Sexton DJ, et al. Risk factors for infective endocarditis in patients with entero-coccal bacteremia: A case-control study. Infection 2004 Apr;32(2):72-7.

13. Durack DT, Lukes AS, Bright DK. New criteria for diagnosis of infective endocarditis: Utilization of specific echocardiographic findings. Duke Endocarditis Service. Am J Med 1994 Mar;96(3):200-9.

14. Irani WN, Grayburn PA, Afridi I. A negative transtho-racic echocardiogram obviates the need for trans-esophageal echocardiography in patients with suspected native valve active infective endocarditis. Am J Cardiol 1996 Jul 1;78(1):101-3.

15. Shively BK, Gurule FT, Roldan CA, et al. Diagnostic value of transesophageal compared with transthoracic echocardiography in infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991 Aug;18(2):391-7.

16. Erbel R, Rohmann S, Drexler M, et al. Improved diagnostic value of echocardiography in patients with infective endocarditis by transoesophageal approach. A prospective study. Eur Heart J 1988 Jan;9(1):43-53.

17. Daniel WG, Mugge A, Martin RP, et al. Improvement in the diagnosis of abscesses associated with endocarditis by transesophageal echocardiography. N Engl J Med 1991 Mar 21;324(12):795-800.

18. Di Salvo G, Habib G, Pergola V, et al. Echocardiography predicts embolic events in infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001 Mar 15;37(4):1069-76.

19. Sochowski RA, Chan KL. Implication of negative results on a monoplane transesophageal echocardio-graphic study in patients with suspected infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993 Jan;21(1):216-21.

20. Roe MT, Abramson MA, Li J, et al. Clinical information determines the impact of transesophageal echocardio-graphy on the diagnosis of infective endocarditis by the Duke criteria. Am Heart J 2000;139:945-51.

21. Reynolds HR, Jagen MA, Tunick PA, et al. Sensitivity of transthoracic versus transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of native valve vegetations in the modern era. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2003 Jan;16(1):67-70.

22. Aminbakhsh A, Shaikh N, MacKenzie GS, et al. Diagnostic use and comparison of harmonic echocar-diography in patients with suspected infective endocarditis (Duchess study): Do all patients require TEE? Canadian Journal of Cardiology 2005;21: 111C.

23. Humpl T, McCrindle BW, Smallhorn JF. The relative roles of transthoracic compared with transesophageal echocardiography in children with suspected infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:2068-71.

24. Pelletier LL Jr., Petersdorf RG. Infective endocarditis: A review of 125 cases from the University of Washington hospitals, 1963-1972. Medicine (Baltimore) 1977; 56:287.

25. Von Reyn CF, Levy BS, Arbeit RD, et al. Infective endocarditis: an analysis based on strict case definitions. Ann Intern Med 1981 Apr;94(4 pt 1):505-18.

26. Li JS, Sexton DJ, Mick N, et al. Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis 2000 Apr;30(4):633-8. Epub 2000 Apr 3.

27. Bayer AS, Ward JI, Ginzton LE, et al. Evaluation of new clinical criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Am J Med 1994 Mar;96(3):211-9.

28. Hoen B, Selton-Suty C, Danchin N, et al. Evaluation of the Duke criteria versus the Beth Israel criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis 1995 0ct;21(4):905-9.

29. Sandre RM, Shafran SD. Infective endocarditis: Review of 135 cases over 9 years. Clin Infect Dis 1996 Feb;22(2):276-86.

30. Nettles RE, McCarty DE, Corey GR, et al. An evaluation of the Duke criteria in 25 pathologically confirmed cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis 1997 Dec;25(6):1401-3.

31. Dodds GA, Sexton DJ, Durack DT, et al. Negative predictive value of the Duke criteria for infective endocarditis. Am J Cardiol 1996 Feb 15;77(5):403-7.

32. Jassal D, Lee C, Silversides C, et al. Can structured clinical assessment using a modified Duke criteria improve appropriate use of echocardiography in patients with suspected infective endocarditis. Canadian Journal of Cardiology 2003;19(9):1017-22.

33. Thangaroopan M, Choy J. Is transesophageal echocardiography overused in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis? Am J Cardiol 2005;95:295-7.

34. Kuruppu JC, Corretti M, Mackowiak P, et al. Overuse of transthoracic echocardiography in the diagnosis of native valve endocarditis. Arch Intern Med 2002;162: 1715-20.

35. Yvorchuk KJ, Chan KL. Application of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1994;7:294-308.

36. Cheitlin MD, Armstrong WF, Aurigemma GP, et al. ACC/AHA/ASE 2003 guideline update for the clinical application of echocardiography—summary article: A report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/ASE Committee to Update the 1997 Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echo-cardiography). J Am Coll Cardiol 2003 Sep 3;42(5): 954-70.

37. Heidenreich PA, Masoudi FA, Maini B, et al. Echocardiograph in patients with suspected endocarditis: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Am J Med 1999;107: 198-208.

38. Tam JW, Burwash IG, Ascah KJ, et al. Feasibility and complications of single-plane and biplane versus multiplane transesophageal imaging: A review of 2947 consecutive studies. Can J of Cardiol 1997;13:81-4.

39. Butany JW, Naseemuddin A, Nair V, et al. Infective endocarditis in a Hancock bioprosthetic heart valve. J Card Surg 2005;20(4):389-92.

40. Fang G, Keys TF, Gentry LO, et al. Prosthetic valve endocarditis resulting from nosocomial bacteremia. A prospective, multicenter study. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119:560-567.

41. Seiler. C. Management and follow up of prosthetic heart valves. Heart 2004;90:818-824.

42. El-Ahdab F, Benjamin DK, Jr., Wang A, et al. Risk of endocarditis among patients with prosthetic valves and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Am J Med 2005; 118(3):225-229.

43. Chang FY, MacDonald BB, Peacock JE, Jr., et al. A prospective multicenter study of Staphylococcus bacteremia: Incidence of endocarditis, risk factors of mortality, and clinical impact of methicillin resistance. Medicine 2003;82:322-332.

44. Fowler VG, Jr., Olsen MK, Corey GR, et al. Clinical identifiers of complicated Staphylococcus aureus bac-teremia. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:2066-72.

45. Fowler VG, Jr., Li, J, Corey GR, et al. Role of echocar-diography in evaluation of patients with Staphy-lococcus aureus bacteremia: Experience in 103 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:1072-1078.

46. Sullenberger AL, Avedissian LS, Kent SM. Importance of transesophageal echocardiography in the evaluation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. J Heart Valve Dis 2005;14:23-28.

47. Roder BL, Wandall DA, Fimodt-Moller N, et al. Clinical features of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A 10-year experience in Denmark. Arch Intern Med 1999;159: 462-469.

48. Rosen AB, Fowler VG, Jr., Corey GR, et al. Cost-effectiveness of transesophageal echocardiography to determine the duration of therapy for intravascular catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:810-820.

49. Fowler VG, Jr., Sanders LL, Kong LK, et al. Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:106-114.

50. Abraham J, Veledar E, Lerakis S. Comparison of frequency of active infective endocarditis by echocardiogra-phy in patients with bacteremia with and without human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91:1500-03.

51. Barbaro G;Cardiovascular manifestation of HIV infection: Current perspective. Circulation 2002;106: 1420-25.

52. Lerner PI, Weinstein L. Infectious endocarditis in the antibiotic era. N Engl J Med 1966;274:199.

53. Venezio FR, Westenfelder GO, Cook FV, et al. Infectious endocarditis in a community hospital. Arch Intern Med 1982;42:789.

54. Weinstein L, Rubin RH. Infectious endocarditis—1973. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1973; 16:239.

All Natural Yeast Infection Treatment

All Natural Yeast Infection Treatment

Ever have a yeast infection? The raw, itchy and outright unbearable burning sensation that always comes with even the mildest infection can wreak such havoc on our daily lives.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment