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Mendelian Inheritance Intelligence Testing and American Eugenics

The advent of intelligence testing in the 1900s provided a new way to quantify Galton's notion of genius. American eugenicists assessed an individual's eugenic worth by combining his intelligence quotient (IQ) with a Galtonian study of the family pedigree. Psychologist Henry Herbert God-dard published one famous study, The Kallikak Family, in 1912. Goddard traced two family lines that originated with a common male ancestor, whom he called Martin Kallikak (from the Greek words for beautiful kalos and bad kakos ). One branch appeared healthy and eugenic, descended from Martin's marriage to a respectable woman. The second branch was composed of Defective degenerates (alcoholics, criminals, prostitutes, and particularly the mentally feebleminded ) born of Martin's dalliances with a feebleminded tavern mistress. Goddard thus proved the inheritance of feeblemindedness, and its social cost.

Methods For Studying Feelings

Of course, occasionally self-report measurement of feelings may err. A participant may lie to please or confound the experimenter, just as occasionally an intelligence test may fail to identify a good student, or an ohm meter may not measure electrical resistance correctly. It is a hallmark of an adequately validated measure theory complex that it contains, at least implicitly, the criteria for identifying the occasional exception to its usual good functioning.

Examples of Ratio IQ Computation With Attendant Problems

Problem 2 Whereas chronological age rises steadily, mental age does not. Since the highest mental age achievable on a given intelligence test cannot be limitless, even when a limit is placed on the maximum chronological age used to compute IQs as was done in the S-B scale for a long time the IQs that most adults can attain are artificially constrained compared to those of children and adolescents. Solution Because of this and other problems with ratio IQs, as well as with the concept of mental ages, the use of the ratio IQ has been abandoned.The term IQ is now used for a score that is not a ratio IQ and is not even a quotient.This score, known as the deviation IQ, was pioneered by David Wechsler and is explained in Chapter 3.

Failing to Provide Informed Consent

Hospitals, for example, perform AIDS tests on virtually all patients without patients' knowledge or permission, sometimes in direct violation of state law (Pope & Morin, 1990). As another example, Stevens (1990) described a testing center that administered the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale so that students could be placed in the appropriate classes at school. The information schools received contradicted that given to the child's parents. In one case, for example, the report sent to the school recommended that David be placed in a class for average students the report sent to the parents recommended that David should be placed in a class for superior students (p. 15). Here is how the testing center explained the policy The report we send to the school is accurate. The report for the parents is more soothing and positive (p. 15).

Neuropsychological Deterioration

All cases exhibit further, and often severe, decrease in function during the stage of ESES. The disturbances include a marked impairment of intelligence quotient (IQ), deterioration of language, temporo-spatial disorientation, behavioral changes (reduced attention span, hyperkinesis, aggressiveness, and difficulty in contact), and, rarely, psychotic states (Tassinari et al., 1985, 1992b). IQ was thoroughly investigated in 59 patients assembled during the Venice Colloquium and analytic interpretation of test and single subtest results was carried out (Mira et al., 1995). The data showed that ESES is associated with a disruption of all cognitive functions, but the impairment is sometimes greater in the field of logical-structural intelligence and sometimes in the field of infrastructural intelligence, possibly in relation to a previously different intellectual organization.

The Relationship Between Reliability and Validity

Assessment professionals generally agree that evidence of score reliability is not a sufficient basis on which to make valid inferences about the meaning of scores. However, some room for disagreement exists with regard to the extent to which reliability evidence is seen as essential for the valid appraisal of all the types behavior samples that can be gathered through tests. For instance, when test scores are derived from behavior samples that are unique or idiosyncratic, they may not be repeatable or consistent. Tests that call forth an individual's optimal level of performance, such as work samples or portfolios, may produce results that are valid and reliable in terms of accuracy and precision but not in terms of consistency or stability (see, e.g., Moss, 1994). Similarly, instruments that are individually administered, like many intelligence scales or projective techniques, are highly susceptible to influences stemming from the quality of rapport between the examiner and the test...

Traditional Therapeutic Scarification on Patients with Epilepsy

Mental retardation needs to be evaluated and this can be assessed using the intelligence quotient (IQ) system. IQ system is not watertight and a global examination by the physician is a must in order to have a clear impression. This has relevance as epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes related to prenatal and perinatal brain trauma is common in developing countries. The physical examination should consist of detailed neurological examination and examination of other systems. In most studies, authors rarely report the results of physical examination. In the study in 9 African countries, of the 1374 patients with epilepsy, only 58 were in good general status, 29 had an abnormal neurological examination, and 23 had mental retardation.9

Essential Statistics For Testing

As we saw in Chapter 1, the modern field of psychological testing also had its start with the invention of successful tools. The Binet-Simon intelligence scales provided for the measurement of important cognitive processes such as comprehension, judgment, and memory through behavior samples calibrated according to age. Arthur Otis's invention of objective multiple choice items led to the first group tests of general intelligence. Statistical techniques developed at approximately the same time as the first tests allowed for the analysis of data collected by means of those tests.

Expanded Concepts of Intelligence

Many of the standard measures of IQ, such as the WISC and the Stanford-Binet, have changed their content over the years. Although they both still report verbal, performance, and total scores, the Wechsler model now offers scores for four additional factors (verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, processing speed, and freedom from distractibility). The Stanford-Binet also yields additional scores, including abstract-visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and short-term memory. However, the majority of research into genetic and environmental variance in IQ has centered on the assumption that general cognitive ability is the essence of intelligence. Newer tests that measure specific abilities have not been included in genetic studies. These include, for example, tests that measure creativity in a model for intelligence. The addition of new factors in the Wechsler and Stanford-Binet IQ tests represents a trend toward a broader approach to IQ, and away from the notion that IQ...

Intelligence Theorieslaws Of

And refers to a person's complex mental abilities that include, among other things, the variables of amount of knowledge available at a given time speed with which new knowledge is acquired the ability to adapt to new situations and the ability to deal with new and old concepts, abstract symbols, and cognitive relationships. The process of developing general mental schemas to classify events in the environment is called abstract intelligence reasoning (cf., concretistic reasoning or solving specific problems with specific materials) and formal operations (cf, Piaget, 1963), and may be measured in various ways. Many of the theories of intelligence are tied to particular tests, methods, and assessments of this complex concept, and these constitute what might be called measured intelligence. Some researchers in this area refer, also, to the adaptive ability (e.g., grades in school, performance and success at work) of the person as an indication of general intelligence. The modern concept...

Psychometric Tests 1 Static Tests

Psychometric testing of intelligence and related abilities has generally advanced evolutionarily rather than revolutionarily. Sometimes, what are touted as advances seem cosmetic or almost beside the point, as in the case of newer versions of the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), which are touted to have not only multiple-choice but also fill-in-the-blank math problems. Perhaps the most notable trend is a movement toward multifactorial theories, often hierarchical ones, and away from the notion that intelligence can be adequately understood only in terms of a single general or g factor. For example, the third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children offers scores for four factors (verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, processing speed, and freedom from distractibility), but the main scores remain the verbal, performance, and total scores that have traditionally dominated interpretation of the test. The fourth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale...

Clinical Presentation

During cerebral anoxia, the brain experiences insufficient delivery of oxygen (Table I). Generalized brain anoxia is usually a consequence of systemic circulatory arrest caused by cardiac arrhythmia. Although other organs, such as the kidney and heart, can tolerate ischemic periods of up to 30 min, the brain can tolerate no more than a few minutes of anoxia. Brief episodes of cerebral anoxia are usually well tolerated, with patients escaping any irreversible deficits. However, an amnestic syndrome may follow transient periods of global ischemia. Patients may experience a severe antegrade amnesia and variable retrograde memory loss with preservation of immediate and remote memory resembling Korsakoff's psychosis. Individuals with anoxic-ischemic coma of more than 6 hr duration, but with unremarkable cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or cranial computed tomography (CT) imaging, have demonstrated persistent poor learning and recall of paired associations when compared with age-...

Vitamins and Nutritional Supplements

Most current support for vitamin and nutritional supplementation has come from the testimonial stories of parents and from the manufacturers of nutritional supplement products or laboratories engaged in performing metabolic test panels. A well-designed study in 1964 by Bumbalo et al. demonstrated no beneficial effects for Dr. Turkel's U-series in comparison to a placebo. However, Ruth Harrell's 1981 study suggesting improved cognition with a nutritional supplement led to a number of well-funded and well-controlled studies during the 1980s. None of these studies demonstrated any effects of the nutritional supplements compared with controls (Smith et al., 1984 Bennett et al., 1983 Coburn et al., 1983 Golden, 1984 Coleman, 1997). In retrospect, there were serious design flaws in Dr. Harrell's study, including the repeated, frequent administration of the same intelligence test, which might have accounted for some of her results.

Libby Kumin PhD Cccslp

Expressive language and intelligibility problems lead professionals to underestimate intelligence and capabilities. When you ask a child a question, and he or she does not respond with a clearly framed, grammatically correct, well-articulated response, it is easy to assume that the child is not able. When children have open mouth posture, drooling, and low muscle tone in their lips, tongue, and cheeks, with subsequent difficulties in intelligibility, it is easy to underestimate their abilities. The danger is that the child will not be provided with opportunities that will help him reach his potential. Look beyond the speech abilities. Parents can request that their child be given a speech and language battery and a nonverbal intelligence test to separate out expressive language abilities from intelligence level.

Nutrients in the soil in the absence of permanently cultivated fields hotcold health systems See humoral medicine human

An abbreviation for intelligence quotient. An intelligence quotient is a numerical measure based on a standardized test designed to measure intelligence. Among the many criticisms of IQ tests are that they are generally culture bound and therefore not good measures of intelligence for people of cultures and subcultures other than for which the test was designed.

Referral for Services

Hubert and Wallander (1988) noted three primary issues in instrument selection practical considerations, psychometric considerations, and assessment objectives. An example of a practical consideration would be the use of a play scale with a child with severe motor disability (not practical). Psychometric considerations involve the usual suspects of reliability and validity, as well as sensitivity and selectivity in the case of screening, with the addition of utility. Consideration of assessment objectives concerns the match between the data needed and the data collected in relation to the decisions to be made. Hubert and Wallander therefore suggested that assessors needed to know the objectives of the assessment, the decisions to be made, the characteristics of the child, and an appropriate repertory of procedures. No training program can prepare its students to be aware of or to develop competence with all of the available procedures. The most that any program can accomplish is to...

Operationalism Doctrine Of In

Thing directly observable) be given operational definitions. The basis of operational definition was proposed independently by Bridgman (who named it) and by the logical positivists, who called it explicit definition. In 1935, the American experimental psychologist and psychophysicist Stanley Smith (S. S.) Stevens (1906-1973) introduced operational-ism to psychology where it played an important role in the development of behaviorism. Most scientists agree that the enterprise of science needs theory and theoretical terms, and operationalists attempt to guarantee the cognitive significance of theoretical terms by giving them operational definitions. In an operational definition, a theoretical term (e.g., intelligence ) is defined by relating the term to some publicly-verifiable operation, procedure, measurement, or manipulation (e.g., a score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test) also, the operation is one that may be performed on the environment (e.g., the concept drive may be...

Paternal and Maternal Parenting and Outcomes in Sons and Daughters

Additional evidence about the influence of paternal behavior on boys' and girls' development comes from the work of Radin. In the early 1970s, Radin and colleagues (Jordan, Radin, & Epstein, 1975) found that paternal nur-turance was positively related to the cognitive competence of European American middle-class preschool boys, but not girls. For example, in the first of two observational studies, Radin et al. investigated the influence of paternal nurturance (e.g., responsiveness) and restrictiveness (e.g., ordering without explanation) on boys' intellectual functioning. They found that paternal nurturance was positively related to boys' scores on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) (a test of verbal intelligence). On the other hand, paternal restrictiveness was negatively associated with boys' achievement on these same measures. However, after examining a subset of fathers and their daughters from that study, Radin found that...

General Intellectual Ability

Determination of an individual's level of intellectual functioning is a fundamental component of the neuropsychological assessment. Once established, general level of intelligence serves as a point of reference from which to evaluate performance in other domains. Intelligence encompasses a broad range of capacities, many of which are not directly assessed in the traditional clinical setting. The estimate of general intellectual ability is based on both formal assessment methods and a survey of demographic factors and life accomplishments. Formal measures of general intellectual function typically assess a broad range of functions through multiple subtests (e.g., WAIS-III, WASI, WISC-III), and yield an intelligence quotient'' as well as other derived index scores. Other test instruments obtain high correlations with IQ measures and have been used to estimate overall intellectual ability (e.g., Ravens Progressive Matrices, Shipley Institute of Living Scale). In cases of known or...

Use of Neuropsychological Tests and Test Batteries for Detecting and Predicting Early Alzheimers Disease

Neuropsychological tests of memory and attention were found in other longitudinal studies of normal elder samples to successfully discriminate between those who continued to decline from those whose cognitive functions remained stable over time. Memory measures that were most discriminating included tests of word list recall, facial recognition memory, percent retained from the recall of stories, object function recall, and Paired Associative Learning. The attention tests included Digit Symbol and Digit Span from the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (57,101).

Test Revisions

Major test revisions of norm-referenced tests, on the other hand, require re-standardization of the test with a new normative sample. Thus, when the changes are significant enough to justify differences in the test's scale or scoring, one is actually dealing with a new and different test, albeit a test that may bear some resemblance to and share the same title as previous versions. A preeminent example is the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (S-B), which was first published in 1916. The fourth and fifth editions of the S-B, published in 1986 and 2003, respectively, are altogether different from its earlier versions in almost every respect and over time they have become more similar in form and content to the Wechsler scales than to the original S-B. one direction or another due to changes in the population at different time periods. One such change, discussed in Rapid Reference 3.4, is the decline in average SAT scores from the fixed reference group tested in 1941 to the college...

Surgical Treatment

To predict the results of surgery, especially temporal lobe surgery. The intelligence quotient may be measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. In some centers a score of less than 75 has been taken as evidence of diffuse neurological disorder and, hence, as a relative contraindication to surgery. It is important before proceeding to surgery to investigate the hemispheric localization of language and memory. This is generally performed using the Wada test. Sodium amylobarbitone is injected into one internal carotid artery, and while that hemisphere is briefly suppressed language and memory tests are performed. The procedure is then repeated for the other hemisphere.


Leadership (ISEL), 121 Institutional barriers, 17-18 Institutionalization era of, 142 risk of, 87 Instruction, multilevel, 351 Instructional assistants, one-on-one, 424 Integration, 86 Integrative treatments, 261 Intellectual disabilities, 4 Intelligence tests, 138, 151. See also IQ (intelligence quotient) Intelligibility, 224 problems with, 410 Interpersonal skills, 227-228 Interpreters, 224 Interventions, benefits of, 369-371 Intervention services, siblings and, 167 Intestinal blocks, 189 IQ (intelligence quotient),

Talking Things Over

I also told them the results of the intelligence test. Here it was almost always possible to be positive. This was because, even if the child was of fairly limited ability as judged by the results of the intelligence test, some parents feared, not surprisingly, that their child's lack of literacy skills meant that he was simply slow. For this reason it was a relief for them to be told that this was not the case. It was also possible to call attention to their successes, for example relatively high subtest scores on the Wechsler or passes at a high level on the Terman-Merrill. This was clearly more informative than citing a 'global IQ', which, for reasons given in Chapter 9, I always considered a virtually meaningless measure in the case of dyslexic children. There were other children whom the parents knew to be bright here they were often relieved to have this confirmed, particularly if they had been told otherwise by one of their child's teachers.

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