Absolute Numerosities

A variety of paradigms have been used to assess whether animals can represent a single numerosity. In one of the earliest studies, Hicks (1956) trained eight rhesus monkeys to choose cards that contained three visual elements from among cards that contained one to five elements. Similarly, Davis (1984) trained a single raccoon to select a Plexiglas box that contained three objects from an array of boxes that contained one to five objects (see Figure 6.1). Rats have also been trained to respond selectively after three rather than two or four vibrissal strokes (Davis et al., 1989).

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