Contents

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Lessons from the Psychophysics of Time

4.2.1 Temporal Memory Is Scalar

4.2.2 The Clock Can Discriminate Based on Frequency of Reward

4.2.3 The Clock Can Be Paused

4.2.4 Temperature Affects Clock Speed

4.2.5 The Clock Rate Changes with Reinforcement Rate

4.2.6 Species Comparisons

4.3 Circadian and Ultradian Clocks

4.3.1 Circadian Clock Gene mRNA Levels Oscillate with a Circadian Rhythm

4.3.2 Circadian Clocks Are Temperature Compensated

4.3.3 Circadian and Ultradian Rhythms Are Connected, But Not with Event Timing

4.3.4 Circadian Clocks and Event Timers Are Localized to Different Areas of the Nervous System

4.4 How Event Timers Might Work

4.5 Event Timers in the Natural World

4.5.1 Communication

4.5.2 Navigation

4.5.3 Reproduction

4.5.4 Predator Avoidance

4.5.5 Foraging

4.5.6 Prey Pursuit and Capture

4.5.7 Generalized Learning

4.6 Conclusions Acknowledgments References

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