Munire Ozlem evik Contents

11.1 The Forward Genetic (from Phenotype to Gene) Approach to Behavior

11.1.1 Genome-Wide Saturation Mutagenesis Requires Screening Thousands of Phenotypes

11.1.2 Mutant Screens Should Be Both Task Relevant and Efficient

11.1.2.1 Nonassociative Learning Procedures

11.1.2.2 The Temporal Conditioning Procedure

11.1.2.3 Screening Phenotypes en Masse

11.1.3 The Mutated Gene Should Produce a Clear Behavioral Phenotype

11.1.3.1 Loss-of-Timing Mutations

11.1.3.2 Mutations That Change the Speed of Timing

11.1.3.3 Mutations That Affect the Accuracy or Precision of Timing

11.1.4 Why Not Use the Rat?

11.2 The Reverse Genetic (from Gene to Phenotype) Approach to Behavior

11.2.1 Producing Gene Knockouts

11.2.2 Strain Differences

11.2.3 Inducible and Tissue-Specific Knockouts

11.2.4 Behavioral Phenotyping of Knockouts

11.2.5 An Example: Interval Timing in Dopamine-Transporter Knockout Mice

11.3 What if the Single-Gene Approach Does Not Work? References

Research pioneered by Seymour Benzer and his colleagues since the 1960s proved it possible to dissect the genetic basis of complex behavioral processes by analyzing the behavioral and neural modifications caused by single-gene mutations. Neuroge-netics uses naturally occurring or created mutations in genes that affect brain structure and function to understand the complex neural pathways between genes and

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