Revolutionary Guided Juicing Program

Rika's Juicepicker Nutrition Software

So how will Rika's JuicePicker help you: No more web searches! Quickly pick the right juice recipe. Pick recipes according to your favorite ingredients (nutritionally color coded) Pick recipes according to your family's nutritional needs (use color coding) Pick recipes according to available ingredients (easily confirm nutritional colors) Complete instructions for quick preparation with each recipe. Favorite function lets you quickly find your favorite recipes next time round. Easy recipe printing for future reference. Without any prior nutritional knowledge, you can ensure your family gets the main color groups daily. Lots of useful juicing and nutritional tips. Here are just some of the more than 100 recipes you can access with Rika's JuicePicker: Super-Easy Apple Juice, Berry Good-For-You Juice, Super-Easy Watermelon Juice, Super-Easy Start-With-Greens Juice, Full Of Beans Juice, Beauty Treatment Juice, Calm With Greens Juice, Cucumber Slim-Down Juice, Craving Buster Juice, Pineapple Zzzing Juice, Healthier-Hair Tonic Juice, Easy Energy Boosting Juice, Morning Pick-Me-Up Juice, Superhero Soda Juice, Digestive Detox Juice, Glowing Skin Cocktail Juice, Turn-Back-The-Clock Tonic Juice, Lagging Spirit Lift Juice, Yum-Berry Juice, Parsnip Immune Kick Juice, Rika's All-Color Combo Juice, Love-My-Body Juice, Body-Armour Juice, Spicy-But-Nicy Juice, Wheatgrass A-La-Fruit Juice, Sugar-Habit-Go Juice, Body Cleanse Juice. Continue reading...

Rikas Juicepicker Nutrition Software Summary


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Author: Rika Susan
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My Rikas Juicepicker Nutrition Software Review

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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable ebook so that purchasers of Rika's Juicepicker Nutrition Software can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this ebook contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Current applications adulteration of fruit juice honey and wine

Photosynthetic C02 assimilation via the C3, C4 and CAM pathways is of primary importance in the use of carbon stable isotope ratio analysis in food authenticity control. The detection of commercial C4 cane and corn derived sugar syrups in C3 agricultural products (e.g., fruit juice, honey, maple syrup) are thus facilitated by characteristic differences in

Fruit juices

Belton et al. highlighted in 199661 the potential of high resolution 1H NMR to authenticate fruit juices. The sample preparation and acquisition were straightforward and the clear differences in the chemical composition of juices like grape, apple, pineapple, orange and grapefruit suggested that authenticity problems could be tackled. Another preliminary study followed62 where juices from different apple varieties were discriminated on the basis of their 1H NMR spectra. Vogels et al.63 have demonstrated the potential of NMR to discriminate pure orange juice from samples adulterated by pulp wash or sugars. Their work constituted a pilot study, as the number of samples did not exceed 20.

Applications of Microbiology to Foods

Ancient Egyptians used fermentation to produce beer and convert grape juice to wine. They also practiced the aerobic conversion of the alcohol in wine to the acetic acid of vinegar, and the leavening of bread. The present practices of using, for example, pectin-ases for enhanced release of fruit juices from tissue and amylases for the enzymatic modification of starches, are examples involving the indirect application of microorganisms to foods and food components. The production of xanthan gum by the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris for use as a viscosity agent in beverages and semisolid food products is an example of the use of an originally undesirable organism for the production of a desirable food and beverage additive. The use of the mold Aspergillus niger to produce high yields of citric acid as a food and beverage acidulant was established in the 1920s and is a classic example of an initial surface culture process that was eventually converted to a submerged...

Selective Isolation as a Result of Sequential Biochemical Activity

The production of vinegar represents a unique sequence of environmental and biochemical events. The sugars in a fruit juice are first fermented anaerobically by yeasts to ethanol, which is then subjected to vigorous aeration, resulting in the oxidative conversion of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid (usually 4-5 ) by resident acetic acid bacteria. Ethanol as an intermediate product will sustain the growth of fewer microorganisms than will glucose because it contains less energy than glucose and is therefore more restrictive with respect to microorganisms capable of attacking it. Acetic acid contains even less energy than ethanol, and, at a level of 4 , results in complete microbial preservation or stability in the absence of oxygen.

Antioxidants from fruits vegetables herbs and spices

Able to increase vitamin C activity, protecting it against oxidative degradation. They are called bioflavonoids. In red wine and deep-red coloured fruit juices, various anthocyanins and their polymers are present, which are soluble in the aqueous phase, and possess moderate antioxidant activity. In addition to these compounds, various terpenic derivatives could act as potent inhibitors of lipid oxidation (see more in the next section). Another group of active compounds are carotenoids (Stahl and Sies, 1999), e.g., lycopene present in tomatoes. They possess antioxidant activities as mentioned in section 3.3.1.

A S Meyer Technical University of Denmark

This chapter focuses on the antibacterial action mechanisms and bacteriocidal effects of enzymes that have been investigated as possible preservative agents in different foods and beverages. Various enzyme preparations have been added routinely for decades - or even longer - in food processing. Important examples include addition of rennet in cheese making, amylases in bread baking, and pectinases in fruit juice production. Obviously, the purpose of these conventional enzyme additions is to promote specific transformations of crucial technological significance, e.g., to accelerate the clotting of milk during cheese manufacture or to improve the baking performance of flour in bread making. At present, the applications of enzymes in food processing constantly expand and today the addition of exogenous enzymes is employed in a very large number of different food and beverage processes and several new applications of enzymes in food ingredient manufacture and food processing are projected...

Feeding Young Children

Table 1 lists some feeding skills that develop after infancy. Young children need encouragement to practice the skills that enable them to progress from breast- and bottle-feeding to soft malleable foods in early weaning and to foods that require chewing by 9 months to 1 year. After 1 year they should be taking fluids (other than breast milk) predominantly from cups rather than bottles. Continuing to offer drinks from feeding bottles after 12 months can discourage children from accepting foods that need to be chewed. Persistent bottle-feeders may have excessively high fluid intakes because these provide their main nutrition. If the fluid is milk or infant formula, obesity may result. If fruit juices or carbonated drinks are fed, fluids may

Treating Different Types of Dehydration

Rate of rehydration but may not be palatable for some individuals. Most commercial sports drinks contain 1.2-1.8 g NaCl per liter and are also good rehydration solutions, especially when both fluid and electrolytes have been lost through sweating. Fruit juices can also provide fluid, energy, and electrolytes (e.g., fresh orange juice contains approximately 10 mg of sodium and 2000 mg of potassium per liter) but may be too concentrated and delay gastric emptying. Diluting fruit juices 1 3 with water may yield a more appropriate rehydration solution. The inclusion of carbohydrate in the rehy-dration solution provides energy for the intestinal sodium pump, which facilitates sodium transport across the intestinal cell wall into the blood, where it in turn exerts a positive osmotic effect on water absorption from the gut. Glucose and electrolyte sports beverages are useful rehydration solutions for sporting activities but are not a good choice for children with diarrhea since these...

Fermentable Carbohydrate

A wide variety of foods contain carbohydrate that is capable of giving rise to acids as a result of bacterial metabolism (fermentation) within dental plaque. Of the common dietary sugars, sucrose, fructose, and glucose are found in fruit and fruit juices, soft drinks, jams, honey, chocolate and other confectionary, and an immense variety of composite foods and drinks. Lactose arises naturally in milk and milk products but is also widely used as an ingredient in its own right by the food industry.

Origin botanical facts

Although lemons are too tart and acidic to eat as fresh fruit, they are among the most versatile and widely used fruits. The juice and grated peel are used to flavor a wide variety of foods and beverages. Spread on the surface of cut fruits (such as apples) and vegetables (such as potatoes), lemon juice prevents browning that results from oxidation. Frozen lemon juice, but not the processed type (labeled as reconstituted ), is an acceptable substitute for fresh juice.

Ssf Processes For Food Enzymes

Enzymes have become an integral part of human need in day-to-day life, playing a varied role in several industries, particularly the modern food industry. Production of a variety of food products, ranging from baked foods, syrups, and fruit juices to flavoring agents and dairy products, commonly involves the use of several food enzymes. Almost all the micro-bial enzymes can be produced using SSF systems. Industrially important food enzymes, which include alpha amylase, glucoamylase, lipase, protease, pectinase, inulinase, glutaminase, and tannase, have been widely studied (4,5,19,24-33).

Using NMR spectroscopy sample preparation

There are several ways of preparing food samples for NMR, depending on the nature of the sample itself (solid, liquid) and on what type of analysis is to be carried out. Some targeted analyses tend to include an extraction or fractionation step (e.g., extraction of triacylglycerols from milk8) while other samples are used as they are for non-targeted analyses. For high resolution 1H, 13C or 31P NMR of aqueous liquids (fruit juices, degassed beer, wine, skimmed milk) the samples are often prepared simply by adding 5-10 of D20 to the liquid. Deuterated solvents provide a signal for magnetic field stabilisation (field-frequency lock) and allow optimisation of the resolution of the NMR peaks.

Uniform Transmembrane Pressure Microfiltration

Chlorine is often present in alkaline cleaning agents. These agents clean more effectively than the same agent without chlorine and also kill bacteria. Hypochlorite has a certain cleaning effect on its own, and has been successfully used for the cleaning of membranes after the ultrafdtration of potato fruit juice. Some membranes, however, cannot withstand oxidizing agents, and a degree of caution is therefore recommended. The use of chlorine in the food industry is debated and it might not be allowed in the future.

Beverage from Distilled Fermented Liquids

Whiskey includes rye, bourbon, Scotch, Irish, Canadian Pisco, and vodka, which are distilled from fermented grains. Rums (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Jamaica, Barbados, Martinique, and New England) are distilled from sugarcane and molasses. Tequila is distilled from agave. Brandies are distilled from a variety of fermented fruit juices such as grape (cognac, Armagnac, and brandy), apple (calvados and apple jack), cherry (kirsch and cherry brandy), and plum (slivovitz and Micabelle). In addition, distillation with flavored compounds provide such drinks as gins, liqueurs, absinthe, aquavit, and bitters.

Degradation Turnover and Factors that Induce Increased Requirements for Vitamin C

The instability of vitamin C in air, and especially in neutral or alkaline aqueous solution, is attributable to the fact that in the presence of oxygen or other oxidizing agents it readily undergoes two successive one-electron oxidation steps to produce dehydro-ascorbate. Since the oxidation products are also unstable and undergo an irreversible lactone ring opening to diketogulonic acid, the vitamin is very easily destroyed, both in foods and (to a lesser extent because of efficient recycling mechanisms) in the body. Diketogulonic acid is one of several degradation products of vitamin C that cannot be reconverted to the vitamin and are further degraded to stable excretory products, such as oxalic acid, by oxidative metabolism. Of all the micronutrients that are essential for human health and survival, vitamin C is the most easily destroyed during drying and other traditional methods of preserving food. Citrus fruits contain other organic acids that inhibit this process of oxidation...

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

A disturbing trend is occurring in global beverage consumption. Many consumers have stopped drinking milk as a predominant beverage to consuming soft drinks and other beverages highly sweetened with sucrose and other sweeteners. Sadly, the trend is occurring in young children as well as adults. Data analyzed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES) found caries incidence was positively associated with elevated consumption of soft drinks in 9 to 29 year olds (Ismail et al., 1984). Marshall et al. (2003) reported an increased incidence rate for dental caries in young children (4 to 7 years old) when they consumed higher than median intakes of soft drinks, powdered beverages (sweetened with sugar), and to some extent fruit juice during their 'window of infectivity' (2 to 5 years old). They also showed this age group to have inadequate intakes of other nutrients

Strengthening Valueadded Components

The third illustration will be that of research at a state government laboratory. Rare today is the homemaker who squeezes oranges for juice at breakfast. At the Florida Citrus Experiment Station scientists using fundamental knowledge reasoned that if orange juice were concentrated under a vacuum, the temperature would be low enough to avoid the heat-induced taste to which canned orange juice is so susceptible. Furthermore, they reasoned that if a small amount of fresh juice were added back to the concentrate, the top flavor notes could be restored to the concentrate. The process was successful until the volume produced began to cause the orange concentrate to be on the market for an appreciable time then trouble arose as it had with frozen foods. As the juice was concentrated, calcium compounds in the juice were likewise concentrated. Upon storage even at freezing temperatures, the calcium compounds reacted with low methoxyl pectin produced by enzymes in the orange concentrate to...

Properties and Sources of Fructose

Natural sources of dietary fructose are fruits, fruit juices, and some vegetables. In these foods, fructose is found as the monosaccharide and also as a component of the disaccharide, sucrose (Table 1). However, the primary source of fructose in Western diets is in sugars added to baked goods, candies, soft drinks, and other beverages sweetened with sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS is produced by hydrolyzing the starch in corn to glucose using -amylase and glucoamylase. This is followed by treatment with glucose isomerase to yield a mixture of glucose and fructose. The process typically produces a HFCS composed of 42 fructose, 50 glucose, and 8 other sugars (HFCS-42). By fractionation, a concentrated fructose syrup containing 90 fructose can be isolated (HFCS-90). HFCS-42 and HFCS-90 are blended to produce HFCS-55, which is 55 fructose, 41 glucose, and 4 other sugars. HFCS-55 is the preferred sweetener used by the soft drink industry, although HFCS-42 is also commonly...

Fruit Preserves And Jellies

The fruit preserve and jelly categories are certainly a major milestone in food evolution. Their history dates back to ancient times, when a confection or a dessert has been documented as a part of the meal. The use of sugar widened the possibilities for preserving fruits. In fact, during colonial times, a jam sometimes formed while fruit was being boiled. This jam or gel formed when the correct proportions of pectin, sugars, and acids occurred. Jam and jelly production was once considered an art now it is a science. More is known about the components necessary to produce this kind of gel. This knowledge has led to other applications such as stabilized fruit fillings and sauces, processed fruit juices, canned fruits, and frozen desserts and confections.

Definitions And Standards

The name preserves covers a broad range of products, including jams, butters, marmalades, and conserves, as well as ordinary preserves. Preserves contain the largest fruit pieces, whereas jams contain smaller pieces that are crushed or chopped with added acid. Fruit butters are made of fruit pulp cooked to a smooth consistency. They are pressed through a coarse strainer and are more concentrated than jams. Scorching can be a problem because of their high viscosity. Marmalades have the characteristics of both jellies and preserves. They contain thin citrus peel or fruit pieces and are chiefly made from citrus fruits, alone or in combination with other fruits. Conserves are similar to jams, except that two or more fruits are cooked together and raisins and nuts can be added. Jellies are in a class by themselves. They are clear sparkling spreads in which fruit juices as the source of flavor, and, in some cases, the thickening agent. The Federal Standards and Definitions do not...

Vitamins and nutraceuticals

The term carotenoids summarizes a class of structurally related compounds, which are mainly found in plants, algae, and several lower organisms, bacteria, and fungi. At present, more than 600 different carotenoids have been identified (72). Saffron, pepper, leaves, and red palm oil possessing carotenoids as their main color components, have been exploited as food colors for several centuries. The color of carotenoids, together with beneficial properties such as vitamin A precursor and antioxidant activity, has led to their wide application in the food industry. They have been used for pigmentation of margarine, butter, fruit juices and

Comparing Spme To Classical Sample Preparation Methods

Ground Coffee, Fruit Juice, and Butter-Flavored Vegetable Oil Yang and Peppard (1) studied the recovery of flavor chemicals in espresso-roast ground coffee, fruit juice beverage, and butter-flavored vegetable oil, comparing SPME (100- m PDMS fibers in all cases) with other sample preparation methods. b. Fruit Juice Beverages A fruit juice beverage was analyzed by GC MS following both SPME liquid sampling and solvent extraction with dichloromethane (DCM). With the DCM method, 250 mL of juice beverage was extracted three times with 50 mL DCM the solvent was then removed using a Kuderna-Danish evaporator and concentrated to 250 L with a gentle stream of nitrogen. For the liquid sampling SPME technique, the 100- m PDMS fiber was inserted into a 4-mL vial containing 3.0 mL of juice beverage and 0.6 g of NaCl. After SPME liquid sampling for 10 minutes at ambient temperature, the SPME fiber was introduced into the GC injector in splitless mode. The resulting chromatograms appear in Fig. 2....

Freezing Point Depression

Eutectic Freeze Crystallization

Solutes depress the freezing point of water. Therefore, as ice forms and solute concentrations increase, the freezing point decreases. Figure 1 shows how the freezing points of wine and some juices depend on concentration (1). The freezing point depression is roughly inversely proportional to the solute's molecular weight. Thus, at equal concentrations, freezing point depressions for juices (eg, apple juice) in which the main solutes are fructose and glucose are greater than those for juices (eg, orange juice) containing greater amounts of sucrose. Depending on the fruit juice involved, solute concentrations in the 50 range can be obtained by cooling juice to 8 to - 14 C. Cooling to -13 to 18 C is required to obtain 60 concentration. Figure 1. Freezing point versus concentration for wine and various fruit juices. Source Ref. 1. Courtesy of Marcel Dekker. Figure 1. Freezing point versus concentration for wine and various fruit juices. Source Ref. 1. Courtesy of Marcel Dekker.

Type of Nutritional Support

Products can be used to augment a patient's dietary intake. They are available in the form of milk, sweet and savoury drinks, fortified fruit juices, milkshake powder, glucose polymer powders and liquids, and puddings. Patients and caregivers need to be given complete instructions regarding their use to optimise this form of nutritional supplementation. Unfortunately, many studies found that in COPD the use of these supplements led to a reduction in usual energy intake and caused symptoms such as bloating, nausea, and early satiety. Oral supplements are probably less effective in older patients with a systematic inflammatory response.

Current Trends Worldwide

The jam, jelly, and preserve market is expected to reach 1.5 billion by 2000, with the upscale market showing the greatest potential for growth. Gourmet fruit spreads, preserves, jams, and jellies, including more imports and exotic flavors, are the new products. According to Food & Beverage Marketing, the estimated growth rate for these products is 3 per year. The nutritional and health benefits take the forms of less sugar and more fruit no sugar is added because high-sugar fruit juice is used instead of 100 fruit (18,21). A more convenient packaged powdered pectin has sugar added to it to be used as a sugar and pectin mix for preparing jams and jellies at home. Argentina has a line of dietetic jams, the Netherlands markets lower-calorie jams and preserves, and Japan produces a jelly drink.

Acid and Acidified Food Microbiology

For products with pH values between 4.0 and 4.6, there are spore-forming bacteria that can be important in spoilage. Of greatest importance are Bacillus coagulans and the butyric anaerobes such as Clostridium pasteurianum and C. butyricum. Products in this pH range are usually given more severe heat treatments to prevent spoilage from these organisms. Recently, spoilage in fruit juices has been Although the ability of pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli 0157 H7 to grow in acid and acidified foods depends on the food, the pH, the acidulent, and other factors, it is not always necessary for these pathogens to grow to make someone sick. Thus it is important that these organisms be destroyed by a heat treatment. The pasteurization treatments given acid and acidified foods are more than adequate to kill these pathogens, as well as organisms such as the enteric protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In recent years, all three of these pathogens have caused outbreaks of foodborne illness...

Removal of microorganisms by microfiltration

Microfiltration is a well-established laboratory technique for the removal of micro-organisms (both vegetative and spore forms), and hence the production of sterile fluids, without the application of heat. The advent of cross-flow MF has enabled the same concept to be applied on a commercial scale. The technique has been widely applied to the production of clarified beverages such as beer and cider (Finnegan and Skudder, 1989), wine (Palacios et al., 2002) or fruit juices (Short, 1988). Microfiltration effectively removes cells and any other suspended solids, avoiding the use of clearing agents such as diatomaceous earth or enzymes, with excellent retention of colour.

Pressureprocessed Foods In Japanese Market

Two juice products (non-bitter grape-fruit juice by Pokka Co. and mandarin juice by Wakayama Co.) are in the market. In the grapefruit juice, pressure treatment was used to inhibit the development of bitter taste, and in the mandarin juice, the pressure treatment inactivates molds and yeasts after squeezing. This primary sterilization is followed by blending and the secondary heat sterilization to meet the Food Law requirements (8). Fruits with fresh flavor and taste added to sherbet and other pressure-processed foods are becoming popular among younger generations.

The role of foodborne disease outbreaks in changing production and manufacturing processes

Foodborne outbreaks from juice led to changes in the production of juices that emphasized controls for enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli 0157 H7. In 1995 there were 62 cases of salmonellosis in 21 states associated with unpasteurized orange juice sold at a Florida theme park (CDC, 1995b). This was the first orange juice outbreak associated with a commercial processing facility (others had been associated with food service). Outbreaks from Salmonella Typhimurium in Australia in 1999 (Anonymous, 1999) and from Salmonella Muenchen in 1999 (CDC, 1999b) and Salmonella Enteritidis in 2000 (Anonymous, 2000) in the United States further alerted us to the risk of illness from unpasteurized orange juice. In 1996 in the United States, 66 cases of illness and one death from E. coli 0157 H7 were associated with unpasteurized apple juice (CDC, 1996). That same year, outbreaks from apple cider due to E. coli 0157 H7 and to Cryptosporidium also occurred (CDC, 1997). Outbreaks such as...

Physical Activity

Fruit juices, etc. preparing them for table Avoid (or reduce) added sugar to stewed fruit dishes sweeteners dissolved in boiled water can be used instead if necessary Eat whole fruit rather than fruit juices (which are usually many fruits compressed and often with added sugar) Use 'low-calorie' fruit squashes Preferably drink water Avoid added sugar Try to avoid sweeteners so as to

Cardiovascular Health

A significant proportion of the research on flavo-noids has concentrated on their antioxidant actions, and their capacity to act as antioxidants remains their best described biological property to date. Their antioxidant ability is well established in vitro, and in vivo animal data also suggest that consumption of compounds such as rutin or red wine extracts, tea, or fruit juice lowers oxidative products such as protein carbonyls, DNA damage markers, and malonaldehyde levels in blood and a range of tissues.

Food Applications

A major application of pectin is in jams and jellies (16). A high-sugar jam contains 30 to 45 of fruit pulp and 0.20 to 0.4 pectin added as a gelling agent. Jams made with HMP must contain at least 60 soluble solids (sugars) to gel. Reduced-sugar or dietetic jams are manufactured with 55 or less soluble solids (even below 30 ), by adding low methoxyl pectins (eg, in the range 0.75-1.0 ). At very low soluble solids, a calcium salt often is added to aid gellation. Frequently, jellies are made from depectinized fruit concentrates with added pectin, water, and sugar. High-quality, tender confectionery jellies with excellent flavor-release characteristics contain pectin. Pectin is added to jams, fillings, and toppings as a gelling or thickening agent in the preparation of baked goods. HMP jams are useful in applications requiring resistance to the heat of baking such as occurs in producing tarts containing jam. Amidated low methoxyl pectins (ALMP) confer thermal reversibility to gels....

Compliance Monitoring

Since 1991 the USDA's Pesticide Data Program (PDP) has relied on cooperation with states in all regions of the United States to develop residue data that could be more useful for risk assessments than that collected by the FDA. In its initial years, PDP tested fresh fruits and vegetables, which were prepared for analysis simulating practices used by consumers such as washing and or peeling. Since 1994 PDP monitoring has given more attention to foods frequently consumed by infants and children and has included samples of canned and frozen fruits and vegetables, wheat, soybeans, whole milk, fruit juices, and corn syrup. PDP's data on pesticides in selected commodities are used by the EPA to support its dietary risk assessment and pesticide registration programs, and by the FDA to refine sampling for tolerance enforcement (12).

Conservative nature of predictions

Some foods are uniformly liquid in structure, with possibly some suspended material e.g., fruit juice, but most are structured in some way, e.g., they may be gels, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions, gelled emulsions, or they may have a solid surface (Wilson et al. 2002). All these types of structures support microbial growth, often in micro-environments within the major structure. Temperature is generally constant throughout a food stored in conditions of consistent temperature but pH value can vary, first as a consequence of the nature of the microenvironment and secondly, the pH of the micro-environment can be modulated by the metabolic activities of the organisms growing therein. A perceived limitation of models is that, if prepared in homogeneous systems, they may be considered not representative of conditions within the structure of a food. Attempts to explore micro-environments and the activities of micro-organisms within them, in order to improve modelling capability, were...

Phenolic compounds polyphenols and dihydrochalcones

The paper of Ritter G. et al.12 describes the difference in the phenol pattern of apples and sorb apples (Sorbus domesticus). Sorb apples are rich in procyanidines and contain phenol carboxylic acid derivatives not occurring in apples. To authenticate apple and pear products, polyphenol patterns, identifying quercetin glycosides, phenolic acids, and dihydrochalcone derivatives, are established.13 The characteristic quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides and dihydrochalcones are used to control the authenticity of apple and pear juice.14 Detection methods are diode array and MS. In this study arbutin appears not to be a specific marker of pear products. Schnull H.15 discusses HPLC flavonoid fingerprint methods for fruit juice authenticity purposes.

TABLE 903 Cost Comparison of Urinary Antimicrobial Agents 10Day Course

Adjunctive therapy should include plenty of fluids to enhance diuresis, fruit juices containing vitamin C to acidify the urine, a proper diet, and frequent voiding (at least every two hours) to diminish tissue contact with bacteria.14 Women should be reminded that postintercourse voiding may be helpful in reducing recurrent infection.

Conculation Encapulation

The retention of flavour compounds using covalent bonding is a rather uncertain perspective. However, it is possible to use heat treatment or enzymatic hydrolysis in order to release glycosidically bound volatile compounds that are naturally present as precursors in some fruits. It is therefore possible to make advantage of this to modify the flavour of fruit purees, fruit juices and wine (Crouzet et al. 1996). Interestingly, it can be noted that enzymatic hydrolysis or lipolysis is used for the controlled release of fragrance compounds in fabric softeners.

Effect on Micronutrient Intake

One of the reasons for this unexpected result is the sugar-fat seesaw, i.e., low-sugar diets are higher in fat, which is essentially a poor source of micronutrients too. Another reason is that sweetened breakfast cereals and dairy products such as flavored milk, yogurts, and ice cream are a good source of micronutrients. Fruit juice drinks are a source of vitamin C as well as sugars. Thus refined sucrose aids the consumption of some nutritious but fairly unpalatable or bland foods.

Antioxidant and Biomarker Evidence from Intervention Studies in Humans

There are limited data from diet-controlled randomized crossover studies of humans on tea and other flavonoid-containing foods. Most intervention studies, apart from design considerations, suffer from lack of diet control, making them difficult to interpret. Results from intervention studies that employ dietary recalls, food records, and self-administered diets are notorious for introducing error that can mask treatment effects. Clinical studies in humans have focused on the antioxidant capacity of blood and oxidative damage to protein, lipid, and DNA as well as a number of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including lipids, hemostasis, platelet aggregation, endothelial function, and blood pressure. Interventions have included high- and low-flavonoid diets, tea, chocolate, cocoa, wine, grape extracts, and fruit juices.

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

As with many areas of Yuquiculture, artistic expression was very limited. Body painting was practiced, but apparently not for any form of artistic expression. The Yuqui painted their bodies with a red plant colorant erucu (Bixa orellana), which they believed made them invisible to jaguars and snakes. They also painted themselves with Genipa dye (Genipa americana), called dija in Yuqui a fruit juice which after applied, turns a dark, virtually indelible, blue-black color. The fruit is also consumed when ripe. Genipa dye, because of its dark color, was believed by the Yuquito make them invisible to their enemies. Neither of these colorants was applied in such a way as to imply a decorative purpose rather, both were simply smeared over the body and limbs in a somewhat haphazard manner. Genipa was also believed to have some curative properties and was often applied to wounds or abrasions.

Other Selected Mycotoxins

Patulin is frequently found in damaged apples, apple juice, apple cider and sometimes in other fruit juices and feed. PA has been detected in blue eye corn beans and meat. Due to its highly reactive double bonds that readily react with sulfhydryl groups in foods, patulin is not very stable in foods containing these groups (Scott 1975). As a hepatotoxin but not known as a carcinogen, PT is considered a health hazard to humans (CAST 2003).

Extraction of Liquids

A different mode of operation, characterised as bubble flow, is possible if the continuous phase is the liquid to be extracted. The liquid level is kept constant at the top of the column and the supercritical gas which is introduced at the bottom is bubbled through the liquid for extraction. This method is mainly used if small amounts of dense gas are sufficient for complete extraction, i.e. if the solvent ratio of dense gas liquid feed is around 1 kg kg. Examples are the extraction of flavours from wine and fruit juice where only very small amounts of extract can be expected.

Near infrared absorption technology for analysing food composition

Near infra-red (NIR) measurement technology offers an amazingly diverse capability for the analysis of many different constituents or properties of food products. Moisture, fat, protein and sugar content are perhaps the most well known applications in products such as grain, flour, cereals, dairy products, snacks and coffee but NIR has also found application for the measurement of chocolate thickness on refiner rollers, the thickness of sausage casings, the alcohol content of beverages, the maturity of peas and even the quality of fruit juices. The technique can also provide food technologists with information regarding the thickness of critical barrier layers in multi-layer packaging films, protective coatings applied to plastic, paper or metal food packaging materials which all can impact on food storage properties if not controlled.

Corrosion Of Specific Environments

In general terms, natural foodstuffs such as milk, cream, natural fruit juices, and whole egg do not cause corrosion It is quite common to use sulfur dioxide or sodium bisulfite for the preservation of fruit juices and gelatin solutions and in such cases, storage vessels always should be constructed from 316. Although the sulfur dioxide is non-corrosive at ambient temperature in the liquid phase, as a gas contained in significant quantities within the head space in a storage tank it tends to dissolve in water droplets on the tank wall. In the presence of air, the sulfurous acid that forms is oxidized to sulfuric acid at a concentration high enough to cause corrosion of 304 but not of 316.

Functional Roles of Sucrose in Foods

For example, sucrose contributes to the bulk and texture of cakes and cookies and it provides viscosity and mouth feel in liquids such as soft drinks and fruit juices. Sucrose is also a powerful preservative and contributes the long storage life of jams and confectionery. In frozen products like ice cream, sucrose has multiple functions It acts as an emulsifier, preventing the separation of the water and fat phases it lowers the freezing point, thereby making the product more liquid and 'creamier' at the temperature eaten. The presence of sucrose retards the crystallization of the lactose in dairy foods and milk chocolate (tiny crystals of lactose feel like sand on the tongue). In canned fruit, sucrose syrups are used to prevent mushiness caused by the osmotic movement of sugar out of the fruit and into the surrounding fluid. Because sucrose masks unpleasant flavors, sugar syrups are used as carriers for drugs and medicines, especially for young children who cannot swallow...

Action Potencial Note

Mild to moderate hypokalemia is associated with muscle weakness, reduced reflexes, and fatigue. When severe, it can lead to coma and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Patients who are given loop diuretics should be encouraged to eat foods rich in potassium such as fruit juices and bananas, but may still need to take potassium supplements.

Methods of food preservation

High hydrostatic pressure, which is applied for commercial food products at pressure levels up to 700 Mpa, has been proven to inactivate vegetative organisms (Smelt et al., 2002b) as well as spores (Heinz and Knorr, 2002, Meyer et al., 2000). Farkas and Hoover (2000) have identified critical process factors and future research needs. Key advantages of high pressure processing are the quality advantages achieved for various foods as evidenced by the commercial products which are mainly fruit juices, fruit preparations and selected meat products.

Fresh Fruits And Vegetables

Clude starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, and lignins. Several endogenous pectin-degrading enzymes contribute to the softening of many fruits and vegetables. Pectin methylesterase (EC hydrolyzes the methyl ester from the methylated galactose units of pectin to form pectic acid and methanol. In the presence of sufficient calcium ion (Ca+2) a complex is formed that can actually lead to an increase in firming of the plant tissue. However, this reaction can also lead to some problems in the fruit juice industry (see Fruit juices ). Another enzyme, polygalac-turanase, splits the a-1,4 glycosidic bond between adjacent galacturonosyl units. There are actually several forms of this enzyme, an endo-acting form (EC and two exo-acting forms, EC and EC (2), which release D-galacturonic acid. These enzymes lead to extensive degradation of the substrate carbohydrate, leading to significant loss of structural integrity and a concomitant loss of firmness...

Product Safety And Regulatory Issues

Because spores are pressure resistant, all commercially sterile high-pressure preserved foods to date have been acidic products with a water activity very close to 1.0. Examples are yogurt, fruit preserves, fruit juices, and pour-able salad dressings. Viable microbial counts may be obtained when commercially sterile pressure-treated acidic foods are plated on neutral pH media. For this reason all pressure-preserved products should be stored at an appropriate storage temperature for twice their proposed shelf life to assay for possible regeneration of microbes.

Types Of Evaporators

In the evaporation process, concentration of a product is accomplished by boiling out a solvent, generally water, so that the end product may be recovered at the optimum solids content consistent with desired product quality and operating economics. It is a unit operation that is used extensively in processing foods, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, fruit juices, dairy products, paper and pulp, and both malt and grain beverages. It also is a unit operation, which, with the possible exception of distillation, is the most energy-intensive.

Treatment And Residual Levels Of Sulfites In Foods

Currently the treatment and residual level of sulfites in most foods is not strictly limited in the United States. The residual levels or treatment levels are regulated only for those food products that are commonly consumed. These include glucose syrup, dextrose monohydrate, and grape wine, and the maximum residual levels are 40,20, and 350 ppm (S02), respectively. For food starch bleaching the treatment of S02 has been established at

Snack Foods from Eggs

A number of egg-rich drinks have been produced. The drink sold in greatest quantity is eggnog. This is produced as a dried product as well as the refrigerated liquid drink. A number of fruit juices have been mixed with eggs to produce drinks of orange juice and egg, apple juice and egg, and cranberry juice and egg. When preparing any of the drinks in quantity, it is recommended that pasteurized liquid eggs be used. The prepared drinks should be kept at temperatures below 5 C (41 F).

Refrigerated Foods Food Freezing And World Food Supply

Freezing is widely regarded as the most elegant method of long-term preservation of a wide variety of highly perishable foods at economical cost. The list of products that cannot be frozen (salad vegetables, bananas, other whole fruits, etc) is much shorter than the list of products that are successfully frozen. Freezing enables perishable products (fish, shellfish, meats, vegetables, berries, and fruit juices) to be transported across the world and to span the seasons. It makes a multitude of high-quality perishable products available year-round anywhere in the world.

Sterilization Versus Pasteurization

Microbial species (especially the pathogens) and inactivating the enzymes. Because the process does not eliminate all the vegetative microbial population and almost none of the spore formers, pasteurized foods must be contained and stored under conditions of refrigeration with chemical additives or modified atmosphere packaging, which minimize microbial growth. Depending on the type of product, the shelf life of pasteurized foods could range from several days (milk) to several months (fruit juices). Because only mild heat treatment is involved, the sensory characteristics and nutritive value of the food are minimally affected. The severity of the heat treatment and the length of storage depends on the nature of the product, pH conditions, the resistance of the target microorganism or enzyme, the sensitivity of the product, and the method of heating. Some of these are summarized in Table 1 (1). Most pasteurization operations involving liquids (milk, milk products, beer, fruit juices,...

Cranberry synergies with functional phytochemicals and other fruit extracts

Phenolic antioxidant and a-amylase inhibition activity of cranberry, wild blueberry and grape seed extracts and their synergistic mixtures were investigated in a recent study to develop an additional strategy to manage type II diabetes (227). The results indicated that all the extracts had a-amylase inhibition activity which correlated to the presence of specific phenolic phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and rosmarinic acid, suggesting a possible structure related inhibition of a-amylase. Among the fruit juice powders the cranberry powder had the highest a-amylase inhibition activity. A mixture containing 75 cranberry, 15 blueberry and 10 grape showed a synergistic mode of action and was the most optimal mixture to control a-amylase activity. Consumption of blends of fruit juices with biologically active biphenyls or other fruit as well as herb extracts can impart unique functional attributes and could be a more effective strategy in developing diet based...

TABLE 901 Etioloqic Aqents in Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection

Depending on its pH and chemical constituents, urine is generally a good culture medium. Factors unfavorable to bacterial growth are a low pH (5.5 or less) a high concentration of urea and the presence of organic acids derived from a diet including fruit juice and methionine, a breakdown product of ingested protein that enhances acidification of the urine. A thin film of urine remains in the bladder after voiding. An intact bladder mucosa removes organisms from the film, probably by the production of organic acids by the mucosal cells and not by antibody formation or phagocytosis. Incomplete bladder emptying renders this mechanism ineffective and is responsible for the increased frequency of infection in patients with a neurogenic bladder, and in postmenopausal women with bladder or uterine prolapse. The latter group also has marked changes in vaginal microflora due to lack of estrogen, with loss of lactobacilli and increased colonization by E. coli.

Phenolic antioxidants

Remains after the juice is extracted from the fruits. Fermentation of fruit juices, such as grape juice to wine, has already been shown to improve nutritive and health promoting activities (210-212). Solid-state bioprocessing done on the pulps using food grade fungi can result in enrichment of the pulps with phenolic antioxidants and functionally important phenolic phytochemicals, and also improve phytochemical profile consistency.

Nucleic Acid Content of Foods

Extracts of meat and yeast have very high purine contents but are usually eaten in small quantities. Some vegetables may provoke gout attacks by virtue of their oxalic acid content rather than that of purines, but legumes, fast-growing parts of brassicas, and asparagus tips may also have significant nucleic acid content. Fats, white flour, sugar, and fruit juices have been separated from the 'living' part of the food and so they are poor sources of nucleic acids.

Ultrasound as a preservation technology

Until recently the majority of applications and developments in food technology involved non-invasive analysis with particular reference to quality assessment, e.g., by monitoring the attenuation of an ultrasound pulse it has been proved possible to determine the degree of homogenisation of fat within milk (Miles et al., 1990). The extent of emulsification in such materials can also be estimated by the measurement of ultrasound velocity in conjunction with attenuation (Javanaud et al., 1991). It is also possible to determine factors such as the degree of 'creaming' (or 'settling') of a sample, measurements which reflect the movement of solid particles fat droplets to the surface (or to the base) (Gartside and Robins, 1990). Such information gives details, for example, of the long-term stability of fruit juices and the stability of emulsions such as mayonnaise. The combination of velocity and attenuation measurements shows promise as a method for the analysis of edible fats and oils...

The role of all the senses in flavour perception

Realised that he had no perception of bitterness whatsoever for the first time in fifty years he started to understand why he found that a Campari cocktail tasted like just another sweet, red fruit juice. Most of us, however, appear to have several receptors for the detection of bitterness that perhaps reflects the evolutionary importance of being able to detect the presence of many bitter and potentially toxic ingredients in foods. Human babies are born with an inherent liking for sweetness and some time after birth also develop preferences for saltiness and umami character by contrast bitterness and sourness (acidity) are disliked initially by babies but after some years they often learn to like these tastes too. Indeed many children around the age of eight to ten have a delight in eating sour foods that are disliked by adults (Liem and Menella 2003) while adolescents gradually develop a liking for the bitter things such as coffee and beer enjoyed by their parents.

Standard Industrial Classification Manual

Seasonings, and salad dressings 2037 Frozen fruits, fruit juices, and vegetables 2038 Frozen specialties, not elsewhere classified 204 Grain mill products 2041 Flour and other grain mill products 2043 Cereal breakfast foods 2044 Rice milling Frozen Fruits, Fruit Juices, and Vegetables (IN 2037) Establishments primarily engaged in freezing fruits, fruit juices, and vegetables. These establishments also produce important byproducts such as fresh or dried citrus pulp. 1. Concentrates, frozen fruit juice 3. Frozen fruits, fruit juices, and vegetables 4. Fruit juices, frozen

Other concentration and separation processes

Reverse osmosis has made inroads into areas where evaporation is widely used -particularly the dairy, fruit juice and sugar processing industries. The level of concentration attainable is much less than with evaporation, but RO holds advantages in terms of the level of heat damage found in the products. Commercial applications may therefore be to increase the capacity of evaporation plants.

History Of Carbonated Beverages

Simultaneously in America, scientists were studying mineral springs near Saratoga, New York, and developing ways to duplicate their properties. In 1798 the term soda water was first introduced. In 1807, Dr. Benjamin Silli-man began selling carbonated mineral waters in New Haven, Connecticut. The first U.S. patent for the manufacture of imitation mineral waters was issued to Joseph Hawkins of Philadelphia. Developments followed rapidly on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Bottled soda water was first sold in the United States in 1835. Flavors were added soon after that in Germany and the United States, the earliest being fruit juices. Artificial flavors appeared in the 1850s along with ginger ale, root beer, and vanilla flavors sold through pharmacies. These early tonics were compounded and dispensed by chemists in apothecaries for consumption on the premises. The health benefits of mineral waters were expanded with the addition of herbs and sodium bicarbonate to soothe the stomach. By...

Nutritional Considerations

The DASH diet, while promoting dietary patterns, was developed very carefully with particular attention paid to the use of specific foods within categories that contribute more to the intakes of desired nutrients. As an example, consider the rank-ordered listing of potassium content of fruits and fruit juices presented in Tables 2 and 3. Dried fruits typically have the highest potassium content, followed by raw fruits and frozen fruits. Canned fruit products generally do not contain as high potassium content as other forms. There is less potassium contained in fruit juices and generally the fresh forms of the juices have incrementally more than the processed forms. Fruits and juices in general contain some magnesium, another mineral of interest to the DASH investigators. Most fruits contain 2-30 mg of magnesium per 100 grams, but dried fruits contain much more (30-90 mg) and the amounts vary greatly. Fruit juices contain less than 20 mg of magnesium per 100 grams, with most containing...

Other Factors that Impact on Dietary Intakes

Differences in diet are sometimes seen between children from different social classes or income groups. In the NDNS, children from a lower socioeconomic background were less likely to consume low-fat dairy foods, fruit juice, salad vegetables, high-fiber cereals, fruit juices, and fruit than children from a higher socioeconomic background. This impacted on mean daily nutrient intakes with lower socioeconomic children consuming less protein, total sugars, total carbohydrate, and fiber. There was a similar trend for micronutrients, particularly vitamin C. Some surveys have found higher fat intakes in

Etiology of Tooth Wear

The enamel surfaces of the crowns of the teeth may be damaged by wear arising from abrasion, attrition, or erosion. Abrasion can arise from the action of rubbing a hard substance across the surfaces of the teeth, for example when brushing too vigorously with a hard toothbrush. Attrition involves one tooth surface wearing down because of contact with another. A third form of wear involves the direct erosive action of acids present in foods (such as yoghurt or pickles) or drinks (especially citrus fruit juices). No bacterial metabolism is required for these processes to occur. It is unclear, however, whether the apparent increase in the prevalence of clinically apparent erosion of the teeth is the result of dietary habits or of some other factor. Only recently have dental-health surveys assessed this problem specifically, so it is possible that it has been noticed more, rather than actually occurring more, in these later surveys. It is also not always possible to distinguish acid...

Soft or Solid Food Energy Density of Diet and Protein and Energy Requirements

Foods should be temporarily stopped for a period of approximately 4 h when he or she rehydrates. However, it should then be resumed. For children who are in the weaning stages, WHO recommends small, frequent feedings (six or more times a day) to increase nutrient absorption. The type of food should be energy rich, low in bulk, locally available, and nutritious. The diet should contain complementary protein sources and easily digestible fats, and complex carbohydrates should be avoided. All the foods should be well cooked. Easily digestible staple foods that can be easily mashed include rice, corn, potatoes, and noodles. These staple foods should be mixed with vegetables as well as sources of protein if possible. It is also important to ensure adequate rehydra-tion. In addition, the consumption of fresh fruit juices and mashed bananas is highly encouraged because they provide a good source of potassium.

Practical Aspects of Meeting the Nutrient Needs of Infants


The introduction of complementary foods, especially solids and eventually finger foods, is important for infants to develop normal oral and motor skills related to eating and to attain adequate intakes of nutrients that may be low in breast milk (e.g., protein or iron). In a report by the March of Dimes, three common inappropriate complementary feeding practices were delineated (i) introducing foods too early or too late, (ii) introducing foods of low nutrient density, and (iii) feeding contaminated foods. It is noted in the report that early introduction of foods may reduce the intake of breast milk due to limited gastric capacity of very young infants or precipitate an allergic reaction in infants with a family history of food allergy or atopy. By delaying introduction of foods beyond 6 months, there is increasing risk of deficiencies of nutrients known to be relatively low in breast milk and yet essential to support rapid growth of infants, such as iron and zinc. The choice of...

Product platforms

A useful method of organising food products is to link them on product platforms (Meyer and Lehnerd, 1997). This is based on the fact that families of products can be grouped together because they have a common architecture or common morphology (Schaffner et al., 1998). Product morphology is the breakdown of a product into the specific characteristics that identify it to the consumers, by analysis of the product family and the individual product. A product platform is formed by a set of linked products, which are distinctive but also have a strong common linkage, such as fresh fruit juices, nutritional breads, cold breakfast cereals for children. The product platform is defined as 'a set of subsystems and interfaces that form a common structure from which a stream of derivative products can be efficiently developed and produced' (Meyer and Lehnerd, 1997). Product platforms are a useful basis for developing a product strategy for the company, and also for creating ideas for new...


Honey is primarily invert syrup with various impurities that give typical flavors and color. Various concentrated fruit juices are used, as alternatives to sucrose and corn syrups, as natural sweeteners. These fruit juices are principally from grape, pear, or apple sources that have been treated to have low characterizing flavor. These fruit syrups are usually more expensive than sucrose or corn syrup.


Separated eight organic acids from tomato juice. Malic acid was found to be the second major organic acid in fresh juice whereas pyrrolidone carboxylic acid was found to be the second major organic acid in the processed juice. Processing of tomato juice results in an increase in total acid. It was found that acetic acid is increased by 32.1 apparently owing to oxidation of aldehydes and alcohols during processing and deamination of amino acids, such as the breakdown of alanine via pyruvic acid. An increase in citric and malic acids after processing was also noted. Crean12 indicated that sugars can decompose on heating in the presence of acids to give acetic, lactic, fumaric and glycolic acids.


Because purge and trap was originally developed for the analysis of volatile or-ganics in water, it seems a logical extension to apply the technique to food samples that are largely aqueous. In fact, a significant amount of work has been done by purge and trap in the analysis of beverages an excellent early compilation is by Charalambous (12) , including wine (13,14), beer (15), milk (16), coffee (17), and fruit juices (18-20). There are several important practical considerations when applying a process designed for the analysis of trace levels of volatiles in water to samples like fruit juices, including the fact that many of the volatile constituents are present at levels much higher than those encountered in environmental analyses. Beers and wines have levels of alcohol in the percent range, rather than the ppb range, so care must be taken to select an appropriate sample size, and dilution or carrier gas splitting may be required to prevent overloading the gas chromatograph. In...

Effect On Foods

Aroma compounds that are more volatile than water will be lost during evaporation. With some products such as fruit juices, the retention of taste and aroma is important, yet in other foods such as cocoa and milk, the loss of unpleasant volatiles improves the product quality. The color of foods darkens, partly due to an increase in the solids content and partly because the reduction in water activity promotes chemical changes (for example, Maillard browning) (12). As these changes are time and temperature dependent, short residence times and low boiling points produce concentrates with higher qualities. For in-

Antagonist Selection

Of stone fruits caused by M. fructigena (Pusey and Wilson 1984). Subsequent works focused on screening natural microflora from the aerial surfaces of apple and pear trees for antagonistic activity against decays caused by P. expansum and B. cinerea (Janisiewicz 1987). This resulted in the isolation of many bacteria and yeasts that were effective in controlling fruit decays caused by these pathogens. Isolation from the fruit surfaces has become a standard practice and is the most efficient source of antagonists against postharvest fruit pathogens of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruits (Adikaram and Karunaratne 1998 Arras 1993 Chalutz et al. 1988 Chand-Goyal and Spotts 1996 Droby et al. 1999 Guinebretiere et al. 2000 Huang et al. 1992 Kanapathipillai and bte Jantan 1985 Lima et al. 1998 Qing and Shiping 2000 Teixido et al. 1998a Testoni et al. 1993 Zahavi et al. 2000). A variety of enrichment procedures, employing either fruit juice or tissue, have been used to isolate...


A second application of conveyor dryers is foam-mat drying in which liquid foods (eg, fruit juices) are formed into a stable foam by the addition of a stabilizer and aeration with nitrogen or air. The foam is spread on a perforated belt to a depth of 2-3 mm and dried rapidly in two stages by parallel and then counter-current airflows (Table 4). Foam drying is approximately three times faster than drying a similar thickness of liquid. The thin, porous mat


In the first attempt to manufacture these products, the only additives or preservatives used were ascorbic or erythorbic acids. The shelf life of these fruit salads in juice was short (five days), and on the sell-by date, they were highly contaminated by yeast (107-108 cfug-1). Production was stopped after one year or so. More recently, Belgian and Dutch processors have manufactured fresh fruit salads with syrup stabilized with sorbate (to prevent yeast growth), ascorbic acid (as an antibrowning agent), and calcium chloride (to reduce texture breakdown). Of these chemicals, only sorbate is controversial. The stabilization of fresh fruit salads packed without any liquid (syrup or fruit juice) requires only a few ppm of sorbate, because only the first layers of damaged cells must be protected (Varoquaux and Varoquaux, 1990). Dry fruit chunks must be packed in almost airtight containers and under anoxia in order to prevent browning. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are more...

Population Studies

The parents of 866 children from Finland were asked to provide a detailed history of food allergy, and for certain foods the diagnosis was further investigated by elimination and open challenge at home. Food allergy was reported in 19 by the age of 1 year, 22 by 2 years, 27 by 3 years, and 8 by 6 years. In a prospective study of 480 children in the United States of America up to their third birthday, 16 were reported to have had reactions to fruit or fruit juice and 28 to other food. However, open challenge confirmed reactions in only 12 of the former and 8 of the latter.

Chemical Evaluations

D-amino acids are important components of bacterial peptidoglycans. The presence of 1 ppm D-alanine in a variety of fruit juices indicated bacterial as opposed to yeast contamination (21). Thus, the potential exists for this compound to be used as a spoilage indicator. Similarly the Disomer of lactate is not found in fresh foods and can be a diagnostic feature for bacterial spoilage.


Starch, cellulose, and their derivatives are the only polysaccharides consumed to any extent by humans. The major simple sugars ingested include the monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose in honey and fruit juices) and di-saccharides (such as maltose in beer, lactose in milk, and sucrose in table sugar). Also ingested are dextrins, sugar alcohol, and trisaccharides and tetrasaccharides, although in very small quantities. The sections that follow discuss briefly the digestion and absorption pathways of these carbohydrates, the involvement of carbohydrates in energy formation and storage, the specific processes by which carbohydrates are broken down or synthesized by the body, and the regulation of glucose levels in the blood.


Patulin is produced primarily by P. expansum. Other Penicillium and Aspergillus species can also be patu-lin producers. Commodities found contaminated with patulin are mainly fruits and fruit juices in Europe and North America. Patulin is appreciably stable in apple and grape juices, and it may constitute a potential threat to humans. Currently, 11 countries have set regulatory limits for patulin in fruit juice ranging from 30 to 50 ppb. The toxicity of patulin has been studied in many experimental models, including chicken, quail, cat, cattle, rabbit, mice, and rats. The toxic effects on these animals were found to be edema and hemorrhage in brain and lungs capillary damage in the liver, spleen, and kidney paralysis of motor nerves and convulsions. Patulin is also an immunosuppressive agent that inhibits multiple aspects of macrophage function.

UV control of food

UV-VIS absorption spectra of alcoholic solution of frozen orange concentrates and single strength orange juices can give qualitative detection and quantitative approximation of orange pulp wash in orange juice. With fluorescence spectra they have been adopted as official first measurements for detecting adulteration of Florida orange juice with pulp wash (Petrus and Attaway, 1985). Fruit juices


For use in jams, preserves, and nectars. Strawberries are also frozen as whole or sliced fruit individually or in blocks, with or without sugar. Strawberries are also canned or made into juice concentrate. Dehydrated berries, fruit preparations, fillings, syrups, toppings, beverages, and wines are other products. Combinations of strawberry juice with many other fruit juices are increasing in popularity due to the trend for increased consumption of fruit juices.

Passion Fruit

A number of species are grown for their edible fruit purple granadilla (P. edulis), yellow granadilla (P. laurifolia), sweet granadilla (P. ligularis), sweet calabash (P. maliformis), curaba (P. mollissima), and giant granadilla (P. quadrangularis). The round berry, grown on a woody vine, is about 2 in. in diameter and contains a juicy pulp with many seeds. Single-strength or concentrated juice, frozen or canned, is the major processed product. The flavor is very susceptible to damage by heat therefore, the frozen product is preferred over the canned product, but recent advances in aseptic packaging have produced superior products. Passion fruit juice is very popular for blending with other juices. The fruit is also used in fruit salads, jams, jellies, and confections.


Cranberry whole sauce is a similar product, but it contains the skins and seeds. Both products form a firm gel because of the high pectin content. For cranberry juice, frozen cranberries are thawed and pressed to collect the juice. Commercial juice, as marketed for consumption, contains about 20 to 30 juice, sugar, and water. The press juice has to be diluted because full-strength juice is too astringent and does not make a palatable product. Cranberry juice and a number of combinations with other juices such as raspberry, orange, apple, blueberry, and prune have proved to be very popular in the recent rapid increase in fruit juice consumption by the American public. The popularity of the fruit juices has led to increased demand for cranberry juice concentrate, which is made by filtering the press run juice and passing it through an evaporator. Cranberry juice concentrate also provides a very concentrated source of red anthocyanin pigments, which make a very...


Detection of adulteration of cranberry juice products can be performed by HPLC analysis of organic acids (quinic, malic, citric, and fumaric acid), the sugar profile and the anthocyanins.36 HPLC analysis of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, malic, citric, quinic, shikimic, fumaric, and chlorogenic acids and hydroxymethylfurfural are useful for the verification of authenticity of apple juice.37 Hofsommer H.-J. discusses different techniques, among others, HPLC and ion-exchange chromatography of different substances (flavonoids, organic acids, sugars, anthocyanins), for authenticity of fruit juices purposes.38


Approximately 90 of the blackberry crop is processed, perhaps because the fresh fruit has a storage life of only 4 to 5 days. In earlier years, blackberries were more popular as fresh fruit rather than being processed because of the difficulty in handpicking canes with abundant thorns. The introduction of mechanical picking machines changed the economics of harvesting, and blackberry products became much more popular. Canning and freezing are the main methods of preservation. Juice production is increasing along with the national increase in consumption of fruit juices.

Baby Foods

Several terms are used, somewhat interchangeably, to define baby foods supplementary foods, biekost, and solid food. Other accurate classifications include strained fruit juices, infant cereal, fruits, vegetables, and numerous combination foods with fanciful names. from approximately 70 to 135 g (2.5-4.5 oz) for subsequent forms. Fruit juices are strained, single-ingredient and combination juices provided in appropriate-sized containers, fortified with vitamin C at a uniform level.


Tannase, or tannin acyl hydrolase (EC, is an inducible enzyme, which catalyses the breakdown of hydrolysable tannins and gallic acid esters. It transforms tannic acid into glucose and gallic acid. Tannase is used in the industrial processing of fruit juices and coffee flavored soft drinks as a clarifying agent, and in the manufacture of instant tea it is also used in the production of wine and beer.

Thermal Processing

In the case with pasteurization, not all vegetative microorganisms are killed and thus must be stored under conditions that minimize growth. For example, with milk, pasteurization is used to kill pathogenic microorganisms however, some vegetative spoilage microorganisms can still survive this heat treatment and, thus, milk requires refrigeration. In the case with beer, pasteurization serves mainly to kill spoilage microorganisms. Techniques used to extend shelf life include refrigeration chemical additives that alter the microenvironment of food, reducing growth of microorganisms (eg, sweetened condensed milk, food acids in pickles and fruit juices) packaging (eg, maintain anaerobic conditions in bottled beer) and fermentations with desirable organisms (eg, cheese, yogurt, etc).


Sequence of the enzyme protein, and their properties and characteristics are emerging as important contributions. These may predict changes in enzyme functionalities. Research in this direction can decipher the problem of haze and precipitation often encountered by fruit juice industries due to the conversion of the soluble L-arabanan to less soluble (1 5)-L-arabanan by the unwanted enzymes acting on arabanan. Apparently this requires enzymes that have greater activity on (1 -5) linkages of arabanan than on (1 -3) linkages. A possible solution to this problem is protein engineering, because we now know that the two hydrolytic activities reside in a single enzyme.


In continuous flow (segmented flow) analysis a dialysis step is used for dilution and for the removal of compounds with a molecular weight, e.g., of 1000 Daltons, as well as of 'small' particles responsible for emulsions or opaque solutions like milk or some (filtered) fruit juices. The easy, simple, and automatic sample preparation step 'dilution' is the reason why automatons are mainly or often used in the analysis of liquid and clear (maximum opaque) solutions in enzymatic food analysis.

Juice Extraction

Fomex Extractor Fomesa

Only the FMC extractor (see Figure 3.9-3.10) and recently, some similar machines from FOMESA (7) and OIC (8) allow a simultaneous collection of rasped peel for oil recovery and juice in separate streams. The juice passes from the extractor to a so-called finisher to remove the coarse pulp particles. Then the juice can be bottled as fresh juice or it can be used for the production of juice concentrate. If necessary, the pulp content of the juice can be further reduced by centrifugation, using so-called de-sludger type centrifuges (ALFA LAVAL and TETRA PAK (9), WESTFALIA SEPARATOR (10), etc.). When producing concentrates instead of fresh juice the juice yield from the mash can be increased by washing the pomace from the first pressing with water (e.g. 1 1) and repeating the pressing operation to recover additional soluble juice solids. Especially designed water extraction systems also result in yield increases (see below). The soluble solids recovered from washing of the pomace can be...


Banana Pintadas Tecido

The Florida Sweet variety, commonly grown in California, yields large, juicy fruits that have a taste similar to apples. Manoa Sweet, a variety developed in Hawaii, has orange-red fruits that are especially sweet. A dwarf variety, which grows to a height of only 2 feet, can tolerate lower temperatures than the other varieties and is suited for container cultivation.


In contrast, equimolar addition of ascorbic acid (5 M) to European red grape juice samples significantly increased the antioxidant activities of the red grape juices on human LDL oxidation in vitro (Fig. 3.1).50 The phenolic profile of Concord grape juice is dominated by anthocyanins, levels range from about 300-450 mgL-1,49 where the dominant compound, which is also the major contributor to the dark, purple-bluish colour, is delphinidin-O-3-monoglucoside. In the ORAC antioxidant assay employing b-phycoerythrin as the oxidising substrate, Concord grape juice exerted the highest antioxidant activity among commercial fruit juices followed by grapefruit, tomato, orange and apple juice.52 Phenolic extracts from red grape pomace that remained after red wine production and isolated catechins and procyanidins extracted from grape seeds are all effective inhibitors of human LDL oxidation in vitro.26,33 Grape seed procyanidins also act as free radical oxygen scavengers in aqueous in vitro...

Grape Juice

The development of bulk storage of grape juice paralleled the experience with tomato juice, but the products are different primarily due to the higher sugar content and flavor lability of grape juice. The aims are similar. The Concord grape juice industry primarily in the eastern United States is used for juice, jams, jellies, and fruit juice drinks. The western U.S. grape industry is about 10 times as big and is used for wines, brandies, raisins, juices, and fruit juices. Both have a need for bulk storage of grape juice. Friedman (8) attributed the development of the Concord grape juice industry in the last 70 years to three major technological developments (J) bulk storage of juice, (2) continuous processing, and (3) mechanical harvesting. Continuous processing was introduced about 1955 to replace the batch process being used by the apple and grape industry prior to that time. The batch process consisted of crushing the heated grapes and building a pad of grapes on a filter cloth on...


Spices, cheese starter cultures, shrimp, fruits for ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and vegetables, meats, fish, and fruits for military, camping, and space-travel rations are or have been freeze-dried commercially. Freeze drying is used in making highly compressed, dry, military rations that expand to near-normal size and shape when rehy-drated. Patents (1) or other technical literature describe the freeze drying of eggs, dairy products, powdered fish and shellfish, gelatin, bacon, cooked rice, emulsified peanut butter, soluble tea, puddings, jellies, pie fillings, salads coated with dressings, berries, avocado powder, potato-based products, fruit juices, and yeasts. Laboratory-scale freeze drying is used to preserve food samples.

Role Of Colorants

A quick assessment of the commodity use of synthetic colors indicates that a large proportion are used in fruits and fruit juices and nonalcoholic beverages. These are foods where water solubility and stability are requirements and suitable natural colorants have yet to be developed.

The HACCP study

A critical control point (CCP) is 'A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safetyhazardorreduceittoanaccept-able level' (CCFH, 1997). Preventive measures are applied at CCPs. For every hazard identified in the hazard analysis stage(Stage6)eachstepintheprocess must be assessed to determine if the step constitutesaCCP.Experienceandjudge-ment can be used to decide whether a process step is a CCP, but reference is often made to the CCP decision tree (Fig. 6.2). Answering each of the four questions in the CCP decision tree provides an invaluable aid to the identification and clarification of CCPs. For instance, the moisture in fruit is not a hazard, as moisture represents no harm to consumers. The presence of moisture can allow mould growth and the development of mycotoxins which are potentially hazardous, for example patulin resulting from the growth of Aspergillus clavatus, sometimes found in apple juice. Selecting good quality apples, which...

Highintensity light

High-intensity light, also described as pulsed broad-spectrum white light, is a decontamination or sterilization technology that can be used for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms on food surfaces, equipment and food packaging materials. Surface decontamination of food products using pulsed high-intensity light has many potential benefits to the food industry. High-intensity light is a non-thermal food preservation intervention, with the ability to minimize the deleterious effects of thermal processing and chemical treatments on quality and sensory attributes. Two additional advantages of this technology are, first, it is cost effective, with minimal operating and maintenance costs once equipment is in place and secondly, it is regarded as a relatively safe and non-toxic treatment. Data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States, for approval of UV light treatments for fruit juices, supports the claim that broad-spectrum white light provides...

Acid and Alkali Load

There is surprisingly little information on the direct contributions of individual foods to the acid burden. However, this source of dietary acid is of increasing importance in view of current popular weight reduction diets (e.g., the Atkins diet). The major acids contained in food are citric acid (in fruit, fruit juices), acetic acid (as a preservative, pickles, vinegar), lactic acid (yogurt, fermented foods), malic acid (fruit), oxalic acid (vegetables that contain smaller amounts of citric and malic acids), and tartaric acid (wine). Oxalic acid precipitates in the gut to form calcium salts, which are excreted in the stool and little is absorbed. The other acids are absorbed but quickly metabolized and present an acid burden in the form of CO2. The largest source of fixed acid comes from the metabolism of amino acids (particularly those from animal proteins - see above). The significance of this source of acid is readily demonstrated in patients consuming a high-protein diet...

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