Ionizing Radiation Gamma Radiation

Several studies have been reported in which ionizing radiation with 60Co was utilized to reduce the toxicity of bacterial endotoxin. Bertok and Szeberenyi 47 describe the use of a 60Co-irradiated endotoxin preparation, TOLERIN that significantly decreased the endotoxin's lethal and hypotensive effects in a dose-related manner. Endotoxin's ability to activate the complement system was also affected, and immunoadjuvant properties and ability to stimulate nonspecific resistance were retained....

Historical Development And Regulation Of Parenteral Dosage Forms

The manner of origin of most dosage forms is largely unknown. Early man may have fashioned primitive injections modeled after venomous snakes or insect bites and stings natural puncture injections . East Asians were inoculated for the prevention of small pox by pricking with needles dipped in pus centuries before the technique was used in Western cultures. Jenner used the same technique in 1796 using a cowpox sore 48 . Sir Christopher Wren was the first to inject a drug in 1657, a process later...

Endotoxin Assay Development Cases Studies

A few assay development projects are noteworthy due to either the complexity of the problem presented and or the protracted nature of the solution. Piluso and Martinez 17 developed a quantitative LAL method of testing liposome material. Piluso and Martinez 17 considered that with their particular product there can be no assurance that endotoxin has not incorporated within the forming liposome unless specific analysis is executed, because the function of the liposome as a drug delivery vehicle...