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Black Belt Memory

Black Belt Memory is a product aimed at helping the users have retentive memories in just 21 days. The methods are easy to use that the users can learn it at home. The only difference it has from other self-help program is the follow-up model it uses to track the user's progress. After the users have completed the course, they will get the chance to practice what they have learned by participating in a sort of quiz competition. This quiz competition will either make the designer give the user's certificate or ask the user's to go through the lessons again. This makes it fit for the users to understand it and make them follow the instructions given. The certification is simply a means to help the users stay on track but can do more than that. The users can frame the certificate, hang it on the wall for well-wishers to know. The product is perfect for adults and children over the age of five. It is not one that uses the regular rote memory type of recollection. It uses a systematic way of ensuring the users remember the details the user's need to remember. At the end of the program, the users are guaranteed that their brain will be 300% sharper. Read more here...

Black Belt Memory Summary

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Shortterm And Working Memory

Short-term memory encompasses memory for material or events up to a period of approximately 30 sec. A basic method for assessing this is the memory span procedure, which involves the repetition of sequences of items, for example, words or tapping out a sequence of moves on an array of blocks. This type of memory is only slightly impaired in early AD. A more substantial impairment is observed if a delay is introduced between presenting material and recall and when the delay is filled by a distracter task. This pattern of short-term memory dysfunction has been best characterized by research that attempted to identify the integrity of the different cognitive subcomponents of short-term memory. In relation to the verbal domain, the functioning of the articulatory loop system is a major component. This acts as a phonological store for verbal material, with a verbal rehearsal mechanism. There is evidence that this system is relatively spared in early AD. This is based on the finding that...

Implicit Memory A Conceptual Priming

However, there are circumstances in which there is normal conceptual priming, including the use of the homophone spelling bias test. Here, the manner in which a homophone is spelled by a subject can be biased in one direction by presenting semantically related items beforehand that are related to a particular spelling For example, if the word son (or sun) is presented aurally, then it is more likely to be spelled sun if it is preceded by the words moon and stars. The semantic context primes the production of the related spelling. This phenomenon has been shown to be as strong in AD patients as in normal subjects. There is also evidence that providing greater support for the original semantic processing of a word can reinstitute the priming effect in AD patients. Specifically, this has been achieved by requiring the subject to complete a sentence that ends in the word used for the priming (e.g., He hit the nail with a .'' must be completed, where the priming word is hammer). A similar...

Dopamine And Working Memory

The prefrontal cortex receives elaborate dopamine inputs from the VTA and an optimal level of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex appears necessary for cognitive performance in experimental animals. Significant increases in dopamine levels in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex have been observed in monkeys performing a delayed alternation task. In addition, reduced levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex have detrimental effects on spatial working memory tasks. It has also been reported that very large increases in dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex can cause deficits on spatial working memory tasks. These deficits are ameliorated by the administration of dopamine D1-like drugs. Taken together, the previously mentioned observations support the idea that an optimal level of dopamine is required to perform spatial working memory tasks. If that level is reduced or increased, performance will be negatively affected.

Autobiographical Memory

Such as attention, flexible searching, and organization. Given the dysexective syndrome characteristic of frontal lobe patients, it is not surprising that individuals with prefrontal cortex damage occasionally exhibit impaired autobiographical memory. Assessments of autobiographical memory usually involve a lengthy series of questions covering the major periods of a typical life span (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood). Subjects are asked to describe specific events in great detail, including the dates and the importance of the events, and to indicate the names of friends and family members who may have participated in the events. For example, a subject may be asked to remember the date of his or her wedding or to provide the name of the preschool that he or she attended. The subject's family members later corroborate all reported information. In a 1993 study, Sergio Della Salla and fellow researchers examined autobiographical memory retrieval in a group of patients with frontal...

Impairments of Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory

It has long been believed that memory that lasts for only a few seconds without rehearsal depends on different storage processes than does memory that lasts for minutes or longer without rehearsal. Short-term storage may depend on continued patterned activity in the neurons that represent information during encoding, whereas longer term memory may depend on structural changes between the same neurons that represent the information during encoding and short-term memory. If brain lesions can disrupt short-term memory for specific information, then this view would lead one to expect that long-term memory for that information would also be disrupted. Impaired processing of the poorly remembered information might also be expected. Cortical damage can impair short-term or working memory while leaving processing relatively intact. This pattern of impairment has been explored most extensively with phonological short-term memory, for which the ability to hold sequences of phonemes in mind for...

Other Kinds of Working Memory Disorder

Lesions also disrupt forms of working memory not postulated in the original working memory model of Baddeley. Thus, visual verbal short-term memory can be selectively disrupted, and there has also been a report of a patient with a selective short-term memory deficit for color information in the presence of normal processing of color when memory load was minimized. There is also evidence that relatively selective lexical semantic short-term memory deficits exist. Thus, a patient has been described who was more impaired than a second patient, who had a phonological short-term memory deficit, on tests dependent on lexical semantic short-term memory (e.g., word span tests) but performed better although not completely normally on tests primarily dependent on phonological short-term memory such as non-word span tests. This semantic short-term memory deficit was not caused by a semantic processing impairment because the patient's semantic processing was usually normal when memory load was...

Effects of Working Memory Disorders on Long Term Memory

Until recently, it was widely believed that long-term memory is preserved in patients with short-term memory deficits because patients with impaired phonological short-term memory show normal long-term memory for spoken verbal materials. This finding was interpreted to mean that short-term memory processes do not trigger long-term memory processes, and the two are mediated by separable groups of neurons. These conclusions do not hold, however, because the preserved long-term memory shown by patients is almost certainly for semantic information, whereas their short-term deficit is for phonological information. Patients are able to recode phonological inputs into a semantic code very rapidly so that the recoding can be achieved even in the presence of very fast loss of phonological information. If care is taken to ensure that the phonological information cannot be recoded, then long-term memory might well be impaired. This has been shown in a patient with very impaired phonological...

Subtypes of Semantic Memory Disorder

There is good evidence that semantic memory for different categories of information breaks down in a dissociable manner although how such dissociations should be interpreted remains controversial. There are examples of dissociations, including ones between impairments of word and object knowledge and between knowledge of abstract and concrete words, respectively. Some semantic memory deficits can be extraordinarily specific. For example, following a stroke, one patient was found to have an impaired ability to name pictures and objects from the categories of fruits and vegetables. This patient could name other food objects and all nonfood objects without difficulty, so his difficulty with name retrieval was specific to the semantic categories of fruits and vegetables. The most explored semantic memory deficits have been those for animate category and inanimate category knowledge. Memory deficits for animate and inanimate categories of knowledge have frequently been shown to dissociate...

Deficits In Other Kinds Of Proceduralimplicit Memory

Procedural memory comprises not only priming but also various forms of conditioning, various forms of skill memory, and nonassociative forms of memory such as habituation. The core feature of all these forms of memory is that remembering is not accompanied by a feeling of memory. They are probably much more functionally heterogeneous than semantic and episodic memory, but less is known about them. It is believed that they are mainly dependent on subcortical Amnesics perform normally on nonpriming kinds of procedural memory such as classical conditioning as well as skill learning and memory. For example, they show preserved delay eye blink classical conditioning. Amnesics have also been shown to acquire normally the motor skill of mirror drawing, the perceptual skill of reading mirror reversed words, and the cognitive skill of intuitively grasping the relationship between variables to achieve a target value. Furthermore, amnesic performance has been shown to be preserved in the...

Explicit Memory A Definition

Explicit memory can be thought of as intentional retrieval. That is, explicit memory is the willful process of thinking back in time for the purpose of retrieving previously encountered events. It is also sometimes referred to as episodic memory because explicit memory involves memory for prior episodes in one's life (as opposed to memory for general knowledge of the world, e.g., who served as the first U.S. president, which is called semantic memory). In psychology experiments, explicit memory is usually defined operationally in terms of test instructions. That is, if participants are asked to retrieve a previous event, then the experiment is one that taps explicit memory.

Summary of Working Memory

Overall the neuroimaging research concerned with working memory has reliably revealed a set of structures that may be important for storage, rehearsal, and executive processes. Posterior parietal mechanisms have been implicated in the storage ofverbal material, and prefrontal ones concerned with language processing have been implicated in the rehearsal of stored verbal material. For spatial material, the sites of storage and rehearsal are different nonetheless, one can conclude that there are storage and rehearsal processes for nonverbal material as well, but that these may be implemented via nonlinguistic mechanisms. Finally, various sites in the prefrontal cortex, most prominently dorsolateral prefrontal areas, have been documented in the mediation of executive processes. Thus, the psychological architecture proposed by Baddeley in his model of working memory seems to be amply supported by a brain architecture that may honor the same distinctions among processes.

Beyond Localization Parametric Manipulation of and Dynamic Interactions in Working Memory

Brain imaging studies of working memory and divided attention paint a fairly consistent picture. On-line maintenance of information in support of cognitive performance, whether in specific processing domains such as verbal, object, or spatial processing or more generally as in executive processes, activates specific neural circuits in the frontal cortex. The first generation of these imaging studies was primarily concerned with localization. As such, they have value in pointing to the cortical regions putatively associated with resources and, therefore, in describing the cortical expression of mental workload. However, localization per se is only partially informative with respect to the functional aspects of the neural mechanisms underlying mental workload. Localization is only a first step in a deeper understanding of such mechanisms. More important would be evidence that shows that neural activity in specific cortical regions exhibits systematic variation with task or subject...

Tests of MTT and the standard model Autobiographical memory

Recent research developments show, however, that autobiographical memory itself consists of multiple components, each likely mediated by different brain mechanisms (see Conway & Playdell-Pierce, 2000 Conway & Fthenaki, 2000 Conway et al., 2003 Ogden, 1993 Rubin & Greenberg, 1998 Greenberg & Rubin, 2003, and references therein). Autobiographical memory appears to be organized hierarchically with life-time periods (e.g., high school, university, first jobs) at the top of the hierarchy, general event memories in the middle (going on vacation, visiting friends, family dinners), and unique, specific events which have detailed perceptual information at the bottom. Associated with each of these is semantic knowledge related to the event (e.g., with regard to vacation, general knowledge about the location being visited is incorporated into the memory). Finally, retrieval occurs within the working self' (Conway & Playdell-Pierce, 2000 Conway & Fthenaki, 2000), a type of...

Semantic memory for facts events people and words

Damage to extra-hippocampal structures in the medial temporal lobes can lead to loss of remote memories for facts, events, and people, with the latter being particularly associated with damage to the anterior temporal pole (Tranel, Damasio & Damasio, 1997). Loss of semantic memory, including loss of vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, is associated with damage to posterior neocortical structures, particularly the lateral aspects of the temporal lobe. It is not known which areas are implicated in the loss of personal semantics. Semantic loss is evident in many patients with dementia and neocortical degeneration, including people with semantic dementia whose MTL is relatively spared (Graham & Hodges, 1997 Snowden, Griffiths, & Neary, 1994, 1996), as is their autobiographical memory (Kitchener and Hodges, 1999). As noted earlier, although there is controversy as to whether people with SD have a memory loss for remote, autobiographical events, there is agreement that semantic...

Prolonged consolidation for semantic memory Two alternatives

MTT provides the following account of the interaction of episodic with semantic memory. Whereas each autobiographical memory trace is unique, the creation of multiple, related traces facilitates the extraction of the neo-cortically-mediated information which is common among them, and which is shared with other episodes. This information is then integrated with preexisting knowledge to form semantic memories that are represented permanently in neocortical structures specialized in processing the information and capable of being modified while doing so. Eventually, those memories can be retained and retrieved independently of the hippocampal complex. This process of memories becoming increasingly semantic or generic, was first proposed by Cermak and O'Connor (1984 Cermak, 1989) to explain the preserved memories, both personal and public, of amnesic people. Fig. 9. The presumed, normal loss of episodic memory with time, with memories becoming increasingly semantic. The relation between...

Working Memory Theory Of In

Memory learning psychology, as advanced by the English psychologists Alan D. Baddeley (1934- ) and Graham J. Hitch (1946- ), the theory of working memory refers to the temporary storage system that retains currently-received information items while an interpretation process is activated to sort out this input. This working memory system allows for manipulation of the information and its passage in, and out of, short-term memory. Theoretically, regarding verbal materials, such as sentences, the words in a sentence are held in their literal and original form or state while a more abstract process works to shape and determine the meaning of the sentence. Moreover, the storage system is thought to involve a central executive component (language comprehension processor) and two buffer components (temporary memory storage also known as blackboard memory components) called the phonological loop model (an innerspeech, verbal, or mental rehearsal tactic-device, lasting up to two seconds) and...

Verbal Semantic Memory

Their ability to identify living things, such an elephant or a flower, even though they are still capable of identifying nonliving things, such as tools. One interpretation of this result is that the brain's organization of semantic memory is, in part, organized by broad categories. To test whether this is so in normal adults as well as brain-injured adults, one study used PET to examine what areas of the brain are active during the retrieval of three different semantic categories. Participants were given several scans during each of which they were asked to name photographs of either famous people, animals, or tools. As predicted, different brain activations resulted from naming each kind of stimulus. Naming famous people produced activity in the most anterior part of the temporal cortex, called the temporal pole. Naming animals produced activity in a more posterior area of the temporal cortex in inferior and middle temporal gyri. Naming tools showed activity in an even more...

Cortical Localization Working Memory Divided Attention and the Central Executive

Much of the evidence stems from PET and fMRI studies of the neural substrates of working memory. This is a type of memory involved in keeping and maintaining information on line'' so that it can be used in the service of other processing activities in language, decision making, and problem-solving. The functional properties of working memory have been studied in the cognitive psychology literature, and a widely accepted model is that illustrated in Fig. 3. The possible neural bases of these components of working memory have been the focus of intense study. A general finding is that active maintenance of information in working memory is associated with the activation of both frontal and posterior (parietal) cortical regions, depending on the type of material encoded and the specific operation in working memory probed. For example, it is well-known that perceptual operations can be divided into object and spatial components and that these operations are mediated by cortical processing...

Cerebellum and Working Memory

Working memory has been defined as the ability to maintain and manipulate information on-line. It has been postulated that this function takes place through the interactions between a central processor (central executive), responsible for manipulating the information, and a rehearsal system, specifically devoted to keeping active the information to be manipulated. It is believed that this latter function is specialized according to different types of information. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that verbal information is retained over a short period of time through a mechanism defined as the phonological loop. Two independent subsystems, the phonological short-term store and the rehearsal system, have been identified within this phonological loop. The phonological short-term store is a limited-capacity store in which the verbal information is held for a short period of time. The rehearsal system is a process that recirculates stored phonological information to prevent its rapid decay....

Auditory Working Memory Imagery

In a second condition of the same experiment, Zatorre and Samson presented patients with the same task, but with the retention interval filled by interfering tones. The right temporal lobe patients were impaired in this version of the task, regardless of whether Heschl's gyrus was involved. A group of patients with right frontal lobectomies were similarly impaired. Although the laterality of the frontal effect could not be assessed, the right temporal lobe effect was clear-cut and indicated a critical role in auditory working memory for secondary auditory cortex in the right hemisphere. This asymmetry in an interval associated with internal rehearsal of just heard information by ''inner singing'' suggested the possibility of an asymmetry in the neural substrate for auditory-tonal working memory, conceived of by analogy to Alan Baddeley's ''phonological loop.'' Just as inner speech can serve to refresh the contents of a specialized auditory-verbal store (as when remembering a just...

Motor Memory A Implicit and Explicit Memory Systems

The brain regions that store motor memories differ from those that store conscious memories. The former comprise an aspect of procedural memory or knowledge and the latter declarative memory or knowledge. Psychologists often refer to procedural knowledge as implicit memory and to declarative knowledge as explicit memory. Some psychologists use the term habit interchangeably for procedural knowledge, but this usage should not be confused with its biological meaning, which involves instinctive behavior. The idea that different brain structures underlie explicit versus implicit memory comes from observing the effects of brain damage. Damage to structures in and near the medial temporal lobe (MTL) results in loss of certain recently acquired information. Amnesic patients with MTL lesions can learn and retain skills such as mirror tracing, rotary pursuit, bimanual tracking, and compensation for complex forces applied to the limb during reaching movements. Despite this motor learning, the...

Test of the standard models and MTT account of the pattern of semantic memory loss in amnesia and dementia

To test the two models, Westmacott and I (Westmacott & Moscovitch, 2003 Westmacott, Black et al., 2004) examined performance on two semantic memory tasks fame judgment and speeded reading of names of famous people. According to traditional consolidation theory, both types of knowledge should be represented in neocortex if the names are not recent. MTT, other hand, predicts that insofar as the ostensibly semantic memory has autobiographical significance, that component of the memory is dependent on the hippocampal complex for both recent and remote names. If, as MTT predicts, the advantage of high R over low R names is dependent on the hippocampal complex, then the advantage should be diminished or absent in people with damage to those structures who have poor episodic memory, such as people with amnesia or with Alzheimer's disease. People with SD, on the other hand, should retain the high R advantage even though they have neocortical degeneration accompanied by semantic memory...

Working Memory

The canonical model of working memory is due originally to Alan Baddeley, and it is this model that has been investigated in detail using neuroimaging methods. The model claims a fundamental distinction between short-term storage of information and the executive processes that manipulate this information. This general view is supported by the existence of patients who have intact short-term storage but deficits in executive processes this pattern of impairments contrasts with that of other patients who have deficits in executive processing but intact short-term storage. Such a double dissociation suggests that the circuitries of storage and executive processing are separable, and imaging studies have confirmed this separability.

Semantic Memory

Episodic memory is distinguished by the fact that it requires not only the retrieval of an item from memory but also a source or context for that item. But many times, we retrieve a fact with no knowledge of its context, as when we can identify various types of bicycles without knowing when and where we learned about the various types. Semantic memory can be defined as memory for facts about the world, naked of their source context. This kind of knowledge plays a critical role in all forms of cognition, from language to reasoning to problem-solving. Hence, semantic memory is an important topic for study. Most studies of semantic memory have focused on the retrieval of semantic information from memory because this is studied most readily and because it is more difficult, given the normal course of learning, to study encoding or storage of semantic memory.

Implicit Memory

All of the studies of skill learning discussed earlier involved both explicit and implicit memory for motor Implicit memory is not limited to motor and perceptual learning, however. Exposure to words, pictures, faces, and other stimuli influences later processing of this information, even though subjects may not remember any of the trained items. This unconscious memory is independent of explicit recollection, meaning that the amount of explicit memory one has for a stimulus does not predict the amount of implicit memory. Also, implicit memory is not affected by depth of encoding as is explicit memory. The two forms of memory appear to be separate species that operate independently of one another. Neuroimaging results support the conclusion that explicit memory and implicit memory are mediated by separate circuits in the brain explicit memory by the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and related circuitry, and implicit memory by perceptual areas similar to those discussed in the previous...

Prefrontal Cortical Regulation Of Aggression

Milieu, and the recognition of drive-relevant objects with knowledge of learned social rules and previous experiences relating to reward and punishment. The prefrontal cortex may play a particularly important role in both working memory and social modeling, maintaining an abstract representation of the world that allows anticipation of the effects of one's actions on other individuals and the likely consequences of such actions. The prefrontal cortices construct a behavioral plan that is consistent with experience and especially the rules of socialization in order to optimize the satisfaction of biological drives.

Cognitive Changes With

Also discriminate as well as young subjects between words and nonsense words. The ability to meaningfully combine words into sentences is referred to as syntactic knowledge. This ability is also preserved with age unless a memory component is involved. Semantic knowledge, which is one type of long-term memory, refers to word meaning. Naming and verbal fluency assess semantic ability and decline with age, although impairments usually do not become significant until age 70. Memory problems are the most common complaint of the elderly. Difficulties with memory can begin as early as the 50s. In general, the ability to access remote information and the capacity to attend to new information are not affected by age, although there does seem to be an age-related increase in difficulties with word finding and naming, as mentioned previously. Instead, aging deficits are seen in the ability to learn and retain new information. It is clear that there are several types of memory as well as several...

Apperceptive Agnosia

Individuals with apperceptive agnosia, such as patient JW, have profound difficulty recognizing and naming line drawings their ability to recognize, copy, or match simple shapes as well as more complex objects is severely impaired. However, their elementary visual functions, such as acuity, brightness discrimination, and color vision, are relatively preserved, along with reasonable sensory and semantic memory functioning in the visual domain. These patients have normal visual fields and can maintain fixation on a visual target. The fundamental deficit involves an inability to process features, such that they are not fully available for developing a percept of the overall structure of an object.

Adaptationlevel Theory

ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF THOUGHT THEORY MODEL. This advanced computer simulation version of a network model of information processing, called Adaptive Control of Thought (ACT), or Adaptive Character of Thought-Rational (ACT-R), theory model, was proposed by the Canadian-born American psychologist John Robert Anderson (1947- ). The ACT model consists of two separate long-term memory stores declarative memory (a semantic network of interconnected concepts represented by nodes) that contains declarative knowledge or the active part of the declarative memory system that essentially defines working memory and procedural memory (consisting of a production system) that contains procedural knowledge or information about how to carry out a series of operations in some task. Declarative memory refers to knowing that (e.g., as regards some factual information about the world), whereas procedural memory refers to knowing how (e.g., as regards the correct sequence of movements to accomplish a...

Summary Of Management Guidelines

The age-related differences are difficult to remember and cause major problems in pediatric resuscitation. One should not have to memorize numbers such as drug doses, tube sizes, or cardiac compression ratios. The proper organization of equipment, the posting of pediatric CPR data and equipment sheets, and the use of a length-based system (TableJ 0.-.5) can eliminate the need to commit many variables to memory and can reduce the possibility of errors. This eliminates much of the general anxiety connected with pediatric resuscitation and leaves clinicians free to apply the principles of resuscitation to the children as presented.

Suggested Reading

Fleischman, D., and Gabrielli, J. (1999). Long-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 9, 240-244. Hodges, J. R., and Patterson, K. (1995). Is semantic memory consistently impaired early in the course of Alzheimer's disease Neuroanatomical and diagnostic implications. Neuropsychologia 33, 441-459.

Executive Functions And The Experience Of Anger

Executive functions coordinate goal-directed behavior and mediate conscious experience. Little direct evidence is available on the neurological mediators of these functions, at least with regard to anger. However, the work of Endel Tulving and colleagues on memory and self-awareness provides some insight. Some of the same capacities required for memory are also required for the full experience and expression of anger. For example, recognizing one's place in a dominance hierarchy, as in the case of Delgado's monkeys described earlier, presumes a memory of past encounters based on associative learning. Knowing the meaning of anger and related concepts, which is a kind of factual knowledge, involves semantic memory. However, objective knowledge of the meaning of anger is not sufficient. In anger, the appraised wrong is experienced personally (subjectively) as an affront to the self. The capacity for self-awareness, which Tul-ving relates to episodic memory, is thus necessary for the full...

Moving from understanding to productive thinking implications for practice

Without downplaying the importance of unconscious and social processes, we believe that thinking skills approaches focus attention on self-aware goal-directed thinking, in which there is strategic management of attention and working memory, supported by various 'habits of mind', including critical reflection. The goals of thinking and learning may be concerned with information-gathering, with building understanding, with thinking that generates productive outcomes, or with dynamic combinations of all three.

Learning and acquisition of shape regularities

Across such displays, the joint probability (probability of co-occurrence) or conditional probability (probability of stimulus A given the presence of stimulus B) of stimulus pairs varies systematically. Learning of these stimulus statistics has been shown with a number of different dependent measures. Edelman, Hiles, Yang, and Intra-tor (2002) measured statistical learning as the greater reduction in reaction time for frequent compared with infrequent stimulus pairs in a probe detection task. Fiser and Aslin (2001) found that, in a forced-choice familiarity judgment task, observers could discriminate between frequent and infrequent stimulus pairs, suggesting an explicit representation of stimulus statistics. However, Chun and Jiang (1999) have argued that the memory may be implicit. They found shorter reaction times for frequent over infrequent target-distractor pairings in a visual search task, in the apparent absence of explicit memory for the...

Classical Programming

Of storage locations might be labeled short-term memory (STM) , and the algorithmic mechanisms programmed will directly implement the conceptualizations of the way the model works (e.g., subparts of the program using STM will be direct implementations of storing and removing objects from the STM object in the program). In this classical usage of computers, the speed and accuracy of the computer are used to perform a series of actions that could, in principle, be performed by hand with a pencil and paper. The main drawback from an AI perspective is that the programmer must decide in advance exactly what detailed sequence of actions will constitute the AI system.

Individual Interventions

Working memory, also known as internalization of speech. The progressive shift from public to private speech in children has been found to influence motor behavior and inhibitory control. According to Barkley, self-directed speech provides a means for description and reflection by which the child covertly labels, describes, and verbally contemplates the nature of an event or situation before responding to that event. Shapiro and Cole (1994) summarized the self-instruction training process in the following manner.

Water Soluble Vitamins

The functional deficits are rapidly corrected with thiamine treatment, suggesting that neurons have not been damaged or destroyed. Thiamine deficiency in humans (beriberi Wernicke's disease) produces similar deficits in the control of muscle movements, and also mental confusion. Korsakoff's syndrome, which occurs in almost all patients with Wernicke's disease, involves a loss of short-term memory and mental confusion. Severe thiamine deficiency in humans appears to produce neuronal degeneration in certain brain regions. The motor abnormalities can be corrected with thiamine treatment, but the memory dysfunction is not improved.

Complex Functions A Pattern Perception

These findings extend to other types of tasks as well, including situations in which tones must be retained over brief time intervals. In this type of task, working memory mechanisms are involved. Working memory is important for all types of complex auditory processing since sounds necessarily unfold over time, and a mechanism must therefore exist for holding auditory information on-line so that relationships between elements can be appreciated. In the case of melodies, working memory for pitch involves belt areas of the right auditory cortex, as shown both by lesion studies and by functional imaging studies in normal listeners. The latter studies have also shown that pitch judgments depend on interactions between auditory regions and frontal lobe cortices since frontal cortical regions become more active when tones must be retained over time intervals filled with distractor tones. Together, these findings support the idea ofa hierarchy of processing, with basic aspects of pitch...

Circadian Clocks and Event Timers Are Localized to Different Areas of the Nervous System

While there is no direct relationship between the SCN and event timers, event timing does have a direct relationship with the hippocampus. The hippocampus has played a starring role in mammalian learning and memory since the lesioning of the human subject H.M.'s medial temporal lobes in the 1950s. After the surgery, H.M. was completely unable to form new declarative memories (Churchland and Sejnowski, 1994). Declarative memories are akin to semantic memory in the sense that the memory is based on the learning of semantic statement. Procedural memory, for which H.M. showed only minor deficit, is based on a kind of implicit function learning. For example, H.M. was perfectly capable of learning a motor skill, but he would be unlikely to remember that he had learned it. The function of the hippocampus has also been established in the formation of episodic memory, but not necessarily in its retrieval (Fletcher et al., 1997). Episodic memory is typically associated with the ability to...

Recent Work Finer Subdivisions

Recent work with clinical studies and functional imaging has shown that the single area Broca called the seat of articulate language can be subdivided into regions active in different types of language activities, such as making semantic versus orthographic or phonological judgments. It seems that three areas, the traditional Brodmann's area (BA) 44, BA 46 47, and the anterior insula, are all activated in speech tasks, but they are activated in different combinations in different speech paradigms. It seems that the higher order processes are activating the left anterior area, BA 46 47, and articulation is activating the more posterior BA 44 and the insula. However, imaging has also shown that these subdivisions work together, as Paulesu suggests in his theory of an articulatory loop for language processing. He suggests that Broca's area (BA 44), superior temporal gyri (BA 22 42), supra-marginal gyri (BA 40), and the insulae all bilaterally activated in a phonological short-term memory...

Description and intended use

According to Gagne, we first need to identify and classify learning outcomes. We then analyse the procedural components of learning to reveal prerequisites and to facilitate retrieval of previously learned material from long-term memory. Finally, we provide detailed task descriptions.

Clinical Analysis of Syntax

Clinical investigations relating to syntactical analysis have associated some syntactic ability with Wernicke's aphasia that patients with Broca's aphasia do not possess. Even though the extent of lesions causing Broca's aphasia is greater than originally thought, it does include BA 44 and the surrounding areas, including portions of BA 46 47. This can be easily differentiated from the area of the temporal lobe responsible for Wernicke's aphasia. Swinney and Zurif tested Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia patients to compare their success and rates of processing traces in sentences. If Broca's aphasia patients cannot process one of the syntactic components of sentence structure, then the cortical area affected by the lesion in and around Broca's area may be responsible for that component of syntactic processing. In Swinney and Zurifs study, Broca's aphasics were less effective at processing than were Wernicke's aphasics, Swinney and Zurif suggest that a prima facie case can be made that...

For Behavioral Insomnia Therapies

As might be surmised by the above discussion, sleeping pills remain the most popular treatment for those chronic insomnia suffers who report sleep complaints to their physicians. Indeed, as many as 50 of those patients who complain of insomnia to their physicians are treated with sedative hypnotics or sedating antidepressant medications to address such complaints. Although these agents may be useful in the management of transient insomnia, they generally fail to provide long-term relief for those with more chronic sleep disturbances. Patients who use hypnotics on a long-term basis often suffer such unwanted effects as drug tolerance, dependence, hangover, short-term memory loss, and a gradual return of their sleep problems. Side effects may be particularly problematic among elderly hypnotic users who are at increased risk for toxic drug interactions and serious falls resulting from oversedation. Although some recently developed sleeping pills hold the promise of reduced side effects,...

Changing Reference Group Standards by Recentering the SAT

This capability is particularly helpful when one wishes to contrast relative levels of performance on two or more psychological functions, such as expressive and receptive vocabulary levels or short- and long-term memory, for the same individual or subgroup. The Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) provides an outstanding example of co-norming of two test batteries. The WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG) is a battery designed to measure both general and specific cognitive functions, whereas the WJ III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH) battery is meant to assess a person's academic strengths and weaknesses. These two batteries were normed on the same large sample of individuals, ranging from preschoolers to older adults, representative of the population of the United States, and thus provide ample opportunity for comparing intraindividual levels of performance in a number of indexes of cognitive functioning and academic skills.

Epam Theorymodelprogram

The American cognitive psychologist, economist, and philosopher Herbert Alexander Simon (1916-2001) and the cognitive computer scientist Edward A. Feigenbaum (1936- ) proposed and developed this unified theory simulating perception and memory called EPAM (elementary perceiver and memo-rizer) in 1959, which is a computer program that explains behavior in a number of experimental paradigms, including the classical experimental domain of verbal memory, and learning to categorize stimuli. Thus, EPAM -as a computer simulation of human perceptual, recognition, and memory processes, and the symbolic structures that support them -has been successful in predicting a large range of experimental empirical findings about human perception, verbal and concept learning, and short-term and long-term memory. The most recent version of this model is called EPAM IV and has been adapted to handle short- and long-term memory tasks as well as expert memory tasks. The major current modifications include a...

Errorlessdiscrimination

Theory of stimulus change accounts for the shapes of forgetting and recovery curves it has been applied, also, to the phenomena of retroactive and proactive inhibition and verbal short-term memory. SST considers stimulus generalization in a manner similar to Thorn-dike's identical elements theory a response associated with a stimulus population will generalize to a test stimulus to the extent that the second population shares common stimulus elements with the first population. Concerning discrimination learning, SST adopts the concept of selective attention and its associative relevant cues to help explain behavioral outcomes. Estes indicates that different learning models follow from SST when a small number of stimulus elements is assumed. Such small-element models fit the experimental data as well as do the original large-element models. Recent developments in Estes ' theory have changed in a direction closer to cognitive psychology and away from his original Guthrian...

Scalar Timing and Patch Departure The Marginal Value Theorem

The reference memory is defined as a probability density function with bins corresponding to travel times each assigned a probability, and the total area under the function always equal to 1. Following each travel, the reference memory is updated in two steps. First, a fraction (a) of the area under the probability function is subtracted by devaluing each bin in proportion to its probability value at the time, such that the sum of the devaluations equals a. Second, an area the size of a is added back to the probability in the bin corresponding to the current travel time in working memory. Thus, following updating, the total area under the probability density function remains at unity, but the shape of the distribution is shifted toward the most recently experienced travel time, with the size of this shift controlled by the value of the parameter a. Low values of a correspond to little weight being given to recent experience, as would be predicted in a stable environment, whereas high...

Familysystems Modeltheory

In the context of memory research, the fan effect refers to a tendency for the amount of time required to retrieve a specific fact about a concept to increase with the number of facts that are known about that particular concept (i.e., the greater the number of links to a concept, the more time is required to verify any one link). The fan effect has been observed in diverse study areas such as face recognition, retrieval of various types of knowledge, age-related memory deficits, and increase of information retrieval time with advanced age. It may be suggested that the fan effect is either due to multiple mental models or to suppression of concepts. However, when invoking the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) theory or model (Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) - which embodies associative interference - experimental results are consistent with the multiple mental models interpretation over the concept suppression approach. Thus, the ACT-R theory or model provides a...

Cognitive Aging And Its Neural Substrates

Ingly longer time for processing, can tolerate less admixture of noise in the stimuli, and can deploy fewer resources. As task difficulty and complexity of processing increase, so do age-related differences in speed and accuracy of performance. The debate among scholars of cognitive aging is centered on whether such incremental slowing is proportional and uniform across the tasks or disproportional and differential. Indeed, after accounting for generalized change in speed and resource availability, examples of differential cognitive aging are not difficult to find. Functions associated with episodic memory and executive control of cognitive processes are more sensitive to aging than are semantic memory and verbal reasoning, which rely on stable knowledge structures and well-honed expert skills. The distinction between the tasks dependent on overlearned and automated skills and those that require effortful processing in the absence of environmental support extends into the...

The neural bases of consciousness Some speculations

Kosslyn (1980) treated the visual buffer as a static structure, exactly analogous to an array in a computer. This clearly is overly simplistic. My present view is that the visual buffer itself performs much computation. I suspect that we do not store very complete information in long-term memory, and that when an image is generated the buffer itself must fill in many gaps in patterns. This filling-in process may rely on bottom-up processes that complete fragments that are collinear, fill in regions of the same color or texture, and so forth. This sort of processing would allow stored fragments to engender a more complete pattern. In contrast, the format of the code used in associative memory may be the same as that used to direct the attention shifting subsystem, and thus I would not expect us to be conscious of that type of representation. Similarly, the kind of representations used in associative memory may be the same as those used in many sorts of planning, in which case I would...

Brief Description Of Five Models Of Nonverbal Number Representation

The mode-control model was originally developed as an adaptation of the information-processing model of animal timing behavior by Gibbon and Church (1984). Like the pure timing model, the mode-control model is composed of a pacemaker, accumulator, working memory buffer, reference memory, and comparator (see Figure 6.11a). At the onset of a relevant stimulus, pulses are gated into an accumulator, which then integrates the number of pulses over time. The critical innovation for the mode-control model is the addition of a mode switch, which allows the system to work like a timer or a counter. Pulses are gated into the accumulator by one of three different modes, depending on the nature of the stimulus. These three modes provide the mechanism with the ability to act as both a counter and a timer. In the run mode, the initial stimulus starts an accumulation process that continues until the end of the signal or trial in the stop mode, the process occurs whenever the stimulus is physically...

Electroconvulsive Treatment

Considerable research has supported the short-term efficacy of ECT in alleviating depressive symptoms, particularly those that are accompanied by psychotic symptoms ECT produces significant improvement in approximately 80-90 of individuals with severe depression. Research has shown that both the dosage of the electrical current and the placement of the electrodes (unilateral or bilateral) are related to the alleviation of depressive symptoms and the production of unwanted side effects (mostly short-term memory loss and other cognitive impairments, including mild disorientation). Bilateral stimulation produces greater and more rapid improvement from depressive symp

Sources Of Developmental Changes In Interval Timing

7.5.1 Long-Term Memory Sources of Developmental Changes in Timing Our developmental models of interval timing suggest that the increase with age in the sensitivity to time in the temporal bisection and generalization tasks is due to a decrease in the variability of the long-term memory representations of the standard durations. In short, young children have a fuzzier memory of durations. The issue is Why do they have a fuzzier memory representation of time A first working hypothesis is to consider that the standard durations have been correctly encoded and stored in long-term memory, in the form of a distribution with means equal to the standard values and some given coefficient of variation. In this case, the higher variability of time representation in memory obtained from young children could be attributed to a greater degradation over time, in other words, to a larger degree of memory decay for durations. This decay would erase memory traces of the standard durations and would...

Dna Microarrays And Animal Models Of Learning And Memory

Identifying the mechanisms responsible for learning and memory consolidation remains a critical goal of behavioral neuroscience. Many experiments over the past few decades have demonstrated that inhibitors of transcription or translation interfere with long-term memory (LTM) formation, indicating the requirement of de novo gene expression (Davis and Squire, 1984 Stork and Welzl, 1999). Proteins newly synthesized during memory consolidation may contribute to restructuring processes at the synapse and thereby alter the efficiency of synaptic transmission beyond the duration of short-term memory. Revealing the dependence of LTM on protein synthesis, however, provides no information about the identity and specificity of the required proteins. Because the quantity of a particular protein is often reflected by the abundance of its messenger RNA (mRNA), a variety of methods have been used to describe a limited number of differentially expressed mRNAs during LTM. Increased or, less often,...

Encoding Deselection and Long Term Memory

Our information-rich environment increasingly requires us to process multiple sources of information simultaneously. These attentional demands can have long-term consequences for memory. A substantial empirical literature shows that long-term explicit memory is impaired following encoding tasks that require individuals to attend to two sources of information simultaneously. Such encoding demands do not, however, impair perceptual priming. Because perceptual priming is a robust measure, its resistance to division of attention is not entirely surprising. Yet attentional demands can have a negative influence even on perceptual priming when the encoding situation requires individuals to ignore information that was previously processed in order to focus on a different dimension. We discuss recent research on the fate of such ignored or deselected information in long-term memory. Because deselection is often necessary for accomplishing relevant goals in a variety of situations, a...

Stroop deselection and longterm memory

As we described earlier, studies in which divided attention is instantiated by requiring simultaneous processing of both targets and distractors have shown that whereas performance on tasks that tap into conceptual processes (explicit memory tasks and conceptual priming tasks) is impaired, performance on perceptual priming tasks remains largely intact. These findings suggest that performance on explicit memory tasks such as recall and recognition would be impaired even under those conditions where at-tentional variation is instantiated through item deselection during study. It is reasonable to assume that explicit memory performance would be sensitive to any form of attentional disruption. Furthermore, deselecting an item presumably truncates deeper levels of processing, or processing of meaning, and this curtailment should impair explicit memory performance. The key question of interest concerns whether there are consequences of deselection on perceptual priming because, as noted...

Mechanisms underlying deselection effects in perceptual priming

Regardless of variation in the details of different accounts that can fully capture the mechanisms underlying reduced priming, it is now abundantly clear that deselecting a processed target results in long-term memory impairment. This impairment cannot be attributed to lack of processing of the target itself or to contamination from the use of explicit retrieval strategy. Thus, even the most resilient form of memory, long-term perceptual priming, depends on attentional processes.

Protecting the target from deselection effects

Disruptive effects of deselection on long-term memory are reliable. Yet deselection seems unavoidable in light of competition among the multiple sources of information that we process continually. Is it possible to counteract the disruptive effects of deselection by systematically manipulating the encoding and retrieval factors that operate on memory We have recently begun a series of studies to answer this question (Travers & Rajaram, 2004). In one study, we arranged the encoding conditions to protect the item from the disruptive effects of deselection. To achieve this, we introduced spaced repetition during encoding. Spaced repetition of stimuli is known to enhance explicit memory performance. Specifically, spacing between repetitions of stimuli is assumed to enhance encoding and, in particular, to enhance the encoding of the second presentation (Greene, 1990, 1992). As such, this variable could serve nicely to protect the processing of word Findings from Phase 2 showed a Stroop...

Declarative Learning and the Hippocampus

Research from H.M. suggested that although functional localization is legitimate, there is a more complex circuitry associated with memory than once believed. It could have been hypothesized that because H.M. was incapable of transferring short-term memories into long-term memories, he could not have learned anything new. This was not entirely true. Remember that H.M. could learn skills such as the backwards mirror-drawing task. H.M. illustrated learning by improving at the task, despite his inability to recognize the test each day. This gave much insight into the process of converting short-term into long-term memory, a process called consolidation. H.M.'s ability to learn and improve at a task but to have no recollection of tracing the lines in the star gave novel insight into the role of the hippocampus in storing declarative memories.

Eventrelated Phenomena Eeg Desynchronization And Synchronization

Eeg Desynchronization

Described by Naatanen that is a large surface negative wave that can begin as early as 60 msec and can last for 500 msec. It is a sign of selective attention. Neurocog-nitive studies using ERPs and, recently, event-related magnetic fields have been successfully carried out. Such investigations have benefited much from the approach developed by Alan Gevins and collaborators, the so-called EP covariance methodology, that has provided interesting results concerning the cortical processes involved in working memory and in planning of movement. In these studies, the recording of EPs at different brain sites during the sequential processing of cognitive tasks allowed researchers to follow sequential and or parallel activation of different cortical areas as cognitive tasks evolved. This approach has been particularly successful in studies of brain processes underlying language functions, such as the seminal investigation of Riitta Salmelin and collaborators in Helsinki. Using a whole-head...

Restriction or Enhancement of Gene Expression Changes LTP andor Memory Formation

One potential function of kinases is to activate transcription factors, which are molecules that activate other genes and are found in the nucleus. Transcription factors are interesting because they mediate cellular and molecular mechanisms downstream of receptor activation (i.e., the cell body). One transcription factor involved in learning and memory is CREB. Previous studies indicated that better learning occurs when spaced trials are given as opposed to massed trials. One group used this finding to investigate learning in mice lacking CREB. Unique to these animals is impairment in long-term but not short-term memory. In this elegant study, it was found that in a number of behavioral tasks, including contextual conditioning, socially transmitted food preferences, and spatial learning, there was no impairment in learning when the animals were trained using spaced trials. The impairment observed with massed trials is explained by the fact that there is insufficient CREB to activate...

The Story Of Arc A Molecular Biological Exploration Of Ltp And Memory

Given the likely correspondence between LTP and memory, it is interesting that the injection of Arc antisense ODNs also impairs the ability of rats to retain a spatial memory. In this experiment, rats receive bilateral injections of either Arc antisense ODNs or the scrambled control three hours later, they receive training in the spatial Morris water maze for 1 hr. It is known that this spatial training, like the different forms of electrical stimulation mentioned previously, normally causes an increase in Arc expression in the hippocampus. Both sets of rats acquire the task successfully, but when they are tested 2 days later control animals can successfully distinguish the target location, whereas the rats treated with Arc antisense ODNs cannot. Since Arc-dependent consolidation of the memory likely occurs between 1 and 2 hr after training, antisense ODNs can actually be injected immediately after the spatial training and still interfere with the 2-day long-term memory when injected...

Dopamine And Attention Sharing

In rats, the peak time in gap trials was found to be delayed relative to PI trials for approximately the duration of the gap (Meck et al., 1984 Roberts, 1981 Roberts and Church, 1978). These data were taken to suggest that rats stop their timing process during the gap and resume it where they left off after the gap. To address these data, Gibbon et al. (1984) proposed an on-off switch mechanism controlled by the presence of the to-be-timed stimulus. In PI trials, the switch is closed, pulses from the pacemaker reach the accumulator, and the response rate reaches a peak near the time of reinforcement. During the gap, the switch is open, so that pulses from the pacemaker fail to reach the accumulator. The pulses accumulated during the pregap interval are not lost, however, due to their proposed maintenance in working memory. Therefore, in accord with experimental data in rats (Meck et al., 1984 Roberts, 1981 Roberts and Church, 1978), the peak time in gap trials is delayed by the...

Covert Rehearsal Of Nonverbal Materials

Thus, it appeared that nonverbal materials, whether visual or auditory, could be covertly rehearsed in an effective manner so that long-term memory for them was improved. What was unclear, however, whether such rehearsal was nonverbal in nature, as well, or whether people translated these nonverbal materials into verbal descriptions and then rehearsed these descriptions instead. To be sure, it would be quite cumbersome to label rehearsed nonverbally. For simple pairs or triples of tones, even though physical repetition improved both short- and long-term memory and covert rehearsal improved short-term memory, covert rehearsal was quite ineffective for long-term remembering. That is, long-term memory for pitch or interval information alone could not be improved through silent thinking. Long-term memory for more complex musical materials such as 6-tone sequences or longer sequences with additional rhythmic information, however, did benefit from covert rehearsal. Thus, covert rehearsal of...

Localization of Sentence Processing Mechanisms

There have so far been relatively few neuroimaging studies of sentence comprehension. All of the traditional left hemisphere language areas (i.e., areas surrounding the Sylvian fissure, including Broca's area and Wernicke's area) are activated however, activation in the anterior temporal lobe is also observed in some studies. Given the many processing components involved in sentence comprehension (e.g., syntactic parsing, thematic role determination, semantic integration, and maintenance in working memory), it is unclear exactly what function is carried out in which part of this broad network of activation. Some studies have suggested a specific role for Broca's area in the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences however, not all types of complex sentences induce activation in this area. It is possible that, instead, this area carries out a working memory function related to maintaining words that have not yet been assigned a thematic role. Only certain types of syntactically...

Higher Level Language Processing A Discourse Comprehension

The comprehension of continuous discourse involves more than word recognition, syntactic parsing, and deriving the meaning of individual sentences. Successful comprehension requires an understanding of the relationships among the various parts of the discourse context and is dependent on the reader's or listener's general world knowledge. Many researchers have argued that story comprehension implies the derivation of propositional representations. Propositions derived from a story specify relations between actions and participants in the actions, the states and attributes of the participants, the time and locations of the actions, etc. Propositions are specified in terms of entities (typically nouns) and predicates (such as actions or states) that apply to these entities. For example, consider a story titled The Picnic,'' beginning with the following The sky was cloudy and the weather forecast was not encouraging. There was a 70 probability of showers. However, the Brown family had no...

Neuropsychological and Localization Evidence on Discourse Processing

Some caveats should be kept in mind when considering the findings on discourse deficits. Much of this research has been carried out using group studies, even though researchers have found wide variation in the discourse deficits exhibited by right hemisphere-damaged or closed-head injury patients, with some patients showing no deficits. Clearly, the right hemisphere and the frontal lobes (both left and right) are very large cortical regions, and it is likely that only specific regions within these large areas are critical for discourse processing. Moreover, there are a variety of aspects of discourse processing that could be affected in different subgroups. Some individuals might have difficulty with the working memory demands involved in maintaining information across sentences during discourse comprehension or in planning a narrative to produce. Other patients might have difficulty taking into account other individuals' points of view, which makes their discourse production lack...

Language is a code that relates different types of forms to

The forms of the code and their associated meanings are activated in the tasks of speaking, comprehension of spoken language, reading, and writing. Disorders of the brain can affect the ability to activate these representations in these tasks. Neurological and psychiatric disorders can also affect the use of language to accomplish tasks such as communicating ideas, storing information in long-term memory, reasoning, and solving problems.

Emotions and the Brain

LeDoux notes, secondly, that memories of emotional situations are laid down by a two-track memory system. One system involves implicit or procedural memory, another explicit or declarative memory. So LeDoux asks us to imagine being in a horrific car accident, in which the horn gets stuck on. Later, when you hear a horn your body may automatically have a conditioned fear response you break out in sweats, have a fast heartbeat, and so on. Procedural memory is at work, bringing information directly from the auditory system to the amygdala and opening the floodgates of emotional arousal. But in hearing the horn you also may remember the accident, consciously remembering the intersection where it happened, who was with you at the time, where you were headed, and so on. The two kinds of memories are of the same event, though one is emotion drenched, the other, cool and calm. Research by Larry R. Squire and Daniel Schacter, among others, suggests that the two memory systems are physically...

Disorders of Sentence Comprehension

Some researchers maintain the view that short-term memory is used in comprehending more complex sentences and have pointed out a variety of sentence comprehension disturbances in patients with short-term memory limitations. Sentence length has been shown to affect certain comprehension tasks in some patients who do not show disturbances of syntactic comprehension. However, case studies show that patients with short-term memory impairments can have excellent syntactic comprehension abilities. Although many short-term memory patients have trouble in comprehension tasks, the relationship of these short-term memory disorders to sentence comprehension impairments remains unclear.

Hippocampal Th Eta Wave

It has been proposed that the hippocampus serves as a working memory buffer for many types of information, including temporal information (e.g., Meck et al., 1984). We recorded hippocampal theta in both the T-task and C-task. The rat had to evaluate the duration of auditory stimuli in the former task, either 2- or 8-sec durations, and choose to respond to one of the two levers. On the other hand, the rat does not need to attend to the duration of the stimulus in the latter task only a 2-sec tone is presented, and the rat is only required to respond on one lever. No significant differences were observed between reaction times in the T-task and the C-task (724 70 and 757 122 msec, respectively F(1, 8) 0.13, not significant (n.s.)). Those spectral distributions of hippocampal theta were calculated by fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to compare the involvement of working memory in both tasks. We removed the data for one animal because of contamination by artifacts. We also calculated...

Numerical Conjoint Measurement Theory See Conjoint Measurement Theory

This model paradigm was employed originally by the Swiss biologist, philosopher, and psychologist Jean Piaget (18961980) to test the cognitive ability, working memory, and awareness in children that a physical object is permanent, and that it continues to exist even when the child no longer is in direct contact with it. That is, object permanence is the individual's understanding that an object still has existence even when it is temporarily out of sight. The object permanence paradigm test involves the following procedure the child is shown two containers, one of which holds a desirable object such as a toy, then the containers are closed and the child's attention is diverted elsewhere for a short time later, the child is asked to choose the container having the toy. After several trials during which the child makes correct choices, the toy object is switched to the other container while the child observes. Then, further trials are conducted to...

The Mental Model Theory

Second is the principle of truth Mental models represent only what is true and not what is false, and in this way they place a minimal load on working memory. Hence, the preceding models do not represent the row in the truth table in which the disjunction as a whole is false (Table II). Likewise, the first model represents that the switches are on, but it does not represent explicitly that in this possibility it is false that the brakes are on. People make a mental ''footnote'' about what is false, but normally they soon forget it. If they retain such footnotes, however, then they may be able to flesh out their mental models to make them fully explicit. Table IV presents the mental models and the fully explicit models for sentences based on each of the main sentential connectives. Mental models are accordingly like truth tables in which there are no ''false'' entries.

Familiarity And Other Episodic Memories

A useful, if somewhat controversial, distinction among memory systems is between semantic and episodic memory (Tulving, 1985). Semantic memories are for facts, such as the definitions of words and answers to questions that were the focus of the feeling-of-knowing research discussed in the previous section. Episodic memories are for events in our lives. So, when you recall that one of Roosevelt's vice presidents was Harry Truman, that is a semantic memory, whereas your recollection that you encountered that example earlier is an episodic memory. We could talk about knowing that

Shortinterval Timing

An emerging distinction between models concerns the perception of durations shorter than a couple of seconds vs. the perception of durations longer than a couple of seconds. One proposal is that different systems are involved in timing events on these two scales (Ivry, 1996 Ivry and Hazeltine, 1995). For event durations shorter than a couple of seconds (e.g., the time intervals defined by successive beats in a musical performance), it has been suggested that temporal regularity plays more of a role in timing processes than explicit memory because patterns of event durations on this scale form directly perceivable rhythms (e.g., music and speech) hence, timing in this range is predictable by virtue of the exogenous timing cues provided by stimulus markers (Fraisse, 1963 Jones, 1976 Jones and Boltz, 1989 Port, 1995). This issue and related ones pertaining to effects of rhythmic context on time perception have recently generated interest from dynamical systems and information-processing...

Evidence of Storage or Access Failure

In principle, deficits in semantic memory could occur because of degradation in storage, because of a disturbance in processes that access the stored information, or because both of these problems are present. In the 1980s, Shallice proposed five criteria for deciding whether a semantic memory deficit reflects a problem with keeping fact memories in store or with accessing them. The two most plausible of these criteria involve consistency of success or failure of retrieval and the presence or absence of priming or information-specific implicit (unaware) memory. Shal-lice argued that consistently unsuccessful retrieval of particular items on different occasions implies that storage has been degraded, whereas retrieval should be relatively consistently successful across occasions if storage is still intact. Conversely, if information is not recognized or recalled but is associated with normal priming, then the explicit memory deficit reflects an access problem selective to aware memory....

The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Memory

Prefrontal cortex damage sometimes disrupts long-term memory for post- as well as premorbidly experienced facts and episodes. Commonly, the deficits are of free recall, with item recognition being relatively normal. The ability to remember the temporal order in which items have been presented is also often impaired, as is the ability to remember the source (who said something or whether it was encountered via TV, the radio, or newspaper) of information. Prefrontal cortex lesions have also been found to disrupt various kinds of metamemory, such as being able to predict whether one will be able to recognize information one has failed to recall when it is presented later. However, recognition deficits have also been reported in the presence of free recall that is relatively good apart from the production of a pathological level of false positives. Such memory impairments are probably secondary to the effect of frontal cortex damage on executive processes and perhaps working memory. If...

Temporal Time Attribute

With respect to short-term or working memory, the data indicate that animals and humans with damage to the hippocampus are severely impaired in working memory for temporal information, including duration and temporal order. It has been suggested that trace conditioning requires memory for the duration of the conditioned stimulus. Thus, it is of importance to note that rabbits with hippocampal lesions and humans with hypoxia resulting in bilateral hippocampal damage are impaired in acquisition (consolidation) of trace but not delayed eye-blink conditioning.

Reward Value Affect Attribute

With respect to short-term or working memory, data indicate that animals and humans with damage to the amygdala are severely impaired in working memory for affect information including reward value (affect) associated with magnitude of reinforcement or for a liking response based on the mere exposure of a novel stimulus. The memory impairments following amygdala lesions are specific to the affect attribute because these same lesions in rats do not impair short-term memory performance for spatial location, visual object, or response attribute information. Similar results have been reported for the involvement of the amygdala in mediating affect, but not spatial, response or visual object information during new learning (consolidation) and to some extent reward-based pattern separation. With respect to associations, the amygdala mediates associations that involve the reward attribute, thereby supporting primarily stimulus-reward-type associations.

Sensory Perceptual Attribute

With respect to sensory-perceptual attribute information, I concentrate on visual object information as an exemplar of memory representation of this attribute. In the context of short-term or working memory, data indicate that animals and humans with damage to the extrastriate or perirhinal cortex are severely impaired in working memory for visual object information. The memory impairments following perirhinal cortex lesions are specific to the visual object attribute because these same lesions in rats do not impair short-term memory performance for spatial location attribute information. Similar patterns of results have been reported for the involvement of the perirhinal cortex in mediating visual object information during new learning (consolidation) and visual object-based pattern separation. With respect to associations, the perirhinal cortex mediates associations that involve visual object information, thereby supporting primarily visualvisual-type associations.

Demetrious integrated developmental model of the mind Description and intended use

Demetriou builds his general model of the mind on the three concentric circles shown in figure 5.2, which represent processing capacities, hypercognition and seven specialised capacity spheres (SCSs) which mediate interaction with the external world. The processing capacities (speed of processing, attentional control of processing and working memory) are present in all thinking and have a major influence on general problem-solving (or psychometric g). Hypercognition (meaning the supervision and co-ordination of cognition) is conceived as being an interface between mind and reality, between aspects of cognition, and between processing capacities and the SCSs. Its working and long-term functions are summarised in figure 5.3. The Fig. 5.3. Demetriou's model of working memory (based on Demetriou et al. 2002, p. 8). Fig. 5.3. Demetriou's model of working memory (based on Demetriou et al. 2002, p. 8). Development of thinking and problem-solving within each SCS is influenced through the...

Spatial Place Attribute

Monkeys with lesions of the parietal cortex show deficits in place reversal, landmark reversal, distance discrimination, bent-wire route finding, pattern string finding, and maze-learning tasks. Similarly, rats with parietal cortex lesions cannot perform well in mazes. Furthermore, rats with parietal cortex lesions display deficits in both the acquisition and retention of spatial navigation tasks that are presumed to measure the operation of a spatial cognitive map within a complex environment. They also display deficits in the acquisition and retention of spatial recognition memory for a list of five spatial locations. In a complex discrimination task in which rats have to detect the change in location of an object in a scene, rats with parietal cortex lesions are profoundly impaired, but on less complex tasks involving the discrimination or short-term memory for single spatial features including spatial location and allocentric and egocentric spatial distance, there are no...

Independence Of The Eventbased And Knowledgebased Memory Systems

In a different series of studies a double dissociation between perceptual memory (a measure reflective of the operation of the knowledge-based memory system) and short-term memory (a measure reflective of the operation of the event-based memory system) was reported in human subjects. It was shown that patients with a right occipital cortical lesion displayed impaired performance for perceptual memory tests of visual priming for words but intact performance on short-term tests of recognition and cued recall of words. In contrast, the reverse pattern was present for amnesic subjects with hippocampal damage. Furthermore, for patients with parietal lesions resulting in spatial neglect, there was a deficit in spatial repetition priming (perceptual memory) without a loss in short-term or working memory for spatial information. In a different study, it was shown that, like humans with parietal cortex lesions, rats with such lesions are impaired in a spatial repetition priming (perceptual...

Rulebased Memory System

Evidence supportive of the previously mentioned mapping of attributes onto specific brain regions is based in part on the use of paradigms that measure the use of rules within short-term or working memory based on performance within matching- or nonmatch-ing-to-sample, delayed conditional discrimination or continuous recognition memory of single-item or lists

Spatial Place and Sensory Perceptual Attributes

The dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in monkeys and humans and infralimbic and prelimbic cortex are involved whenever there are rules associated with working memory for spatial and visual object attribute information. Evidence for this idea comes from the finding that rats with lesions of the infra-limbic and prelimbic cortex disrupt working memory for spatial information and working memory for object information. In monkeys lesions of the dorso-lateral and ventrolateral regions disrupt performance on delayed response, delayed alternation, delayed occulomotor, spatial search, and visual object recognition tasks. Furthermore, in monkeys, for working memory there are delay-specific cells in the dorsolat-eral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in spatial tasks, such as delayed response, delayed alternation, and delayed occulomotor tasks, and in visual object delay tasks. In humans, based on a meta-analysis of multiple studies using neuroimaging techniques, both the...

Terminological Considerations

I consider here a few difficult issues involving terminology. First, implicit and explicit memory tests have been defined here according to instructions. However, consider the case in which the instructions given to subjects are for an implicit test, but people choose to ignore the instructions and decide to think back to the past in an effort to enhance performance on the test. Is the test still implicit Conversely, what if people decide that an explicit memory test is too difficult and therefore begin responding with whatever first comes to mind Is the test explicit simply because the instructions asked people to think back in time The approach advocated here is that safeguards can (and in some situations should) be built into experiments to ensure that subjects do indeed follow instructions this is as true of explicit memory experiments as of implicit memory experiments, however. Thus, instructions to subjects define the test type to a first approximation, but it is desirable to...

Subdomains of Prospective Memory

Although all of these situations involve making a plan and performing the plan sometime in the future, the tasks differ in important ways. For some tasks, a plan is maintained in consciousness throughout the retention interval (e.g., scanning for airplanes) whereas for other tasks, the plan leaves consciousness. The critical question is whether the ProM cue brings the plan back to consciousness (Kvavilashvili, 1998 Mantyla, 1996 Graf & Uttl, 2001). We (Graf & Uttl, 2001) have argued that this difference in conscious experiences associated with different prospective memory tasks is analogous to the experiences that characterize primary and secondary memory (James, 1890). By analogy to William James (1890), we have proposed that prospective memory proper requires that we are aware of a plan, of which meanwhile we have not been thinking, with the additional consciousness that we had made the plan earlier (Graf & Uttl, 2001, p. 444). This definition distinguishes ProM Proper from...

Learning Procedural Skills

Procedural knowledge, as described earlier, consists of knowledge of how to do something. It includes all the behaviors shown as examples of procedural knowledge in Fig. 1, common to all of which is the fact that they do not require explicit retrieval of information rather, they require the person to tap memory in the service of some other task, such as riding a bike taps memory to coordinate the muscles in various ways so that balance can be maintained. This is often called implicit memory. Viewed this way, it is clear that a vast number of motor skills are mediated by procedural memory. Of course, procedural memory must develop over the course of practice, and the changes that occur with practice are often highly specific, improving performance on precisely those tasks we practice. Although this may seem to limit our behavioral repertoire, in fact, once we have learned a sequence of motor movements, we can quickly learn to adapt these movements to similar situations.

Some Concluding Remarks

There has been remarkable progress in the study of memory during the last half of the twentieth century. The development of neuroimaging techniques has contributed in no small part to this progress. These techniques have provided a source of evidence about the relationship between brain structure and psychological function that complements evidence from the study of human patients with brain injury, behavioral evidence from normal human subjects, and evidence from animal models. Taken together, these sources of evidence have sketched the outlines of complex memory systems. These systems, in their interaction, form a seamless whole capable of dealing with a variety of cognitive problems. Our memory apparatus has multiple components (working memory, long-term memory), multiple representations of information in different formats (e.g., verbal versus spatial), multiple retrieval schemes (explicit versus implicit), multiple circuitries, and multiple processes (encoding, retention, and...

Classification Of Memory

Memory is not a unitary construct but instead reflects a number of distinct cognitive abilities that can be categorized along a number of different dimensions. For example, one can characterize memory based on the amount of time that elapses between presentation and recall of information (e.g., short- vs long-term memory) or the nature of the information that is remembered (e.g., visual vs verbal). Memory behaviors can also be characterized by task demands (e.g., recall vs recognition) or by the cognitive processes that underlie these demands (e.g., retrieval vs retention). These and other conceptual divisions of memory are reviewed in this section.

Encoding Retention and Retrieval

Encoding, retention, and retrieval refer, respectively, to the processes by which information is acquired and transformed into a stored mental representation, maintained over time without active rehearsal, and brought back into consciousness from storage. Successful encoding occurs when an individual demonstrates acquisition of more information than would normally be possible to hold in short-term memory alone. For example, if someone is presented a list of 16 words, he or she might be able to recall only 6 or 7 of those words after seeing the list for the first time (e.g., a normal amount of information that can be held in short-term memory). If the list is repeated, however, a neurologically intact individual will remember increasingly more words with each subsequent repetition. The ability to remember more words than could normally be held in short-term storage indicates that the information has been encoded into a more permanent, long-term storage.

Gender and Religion

The health, fecundity, and ritual welfare of family and village lie in the hands of women, particularly those who have become spirit mediums and priestesses. All females are potential priestesses and spirit mediums. However, only about a quarter become proficient at trance behavior and memorizing the extensive ritual texts that accompany sacrifices to cure illness and enhance the ritual status of the family and village. Illness is explained by the capture of human souls by members of the spirit world who have become angered. The spirit medium in trance identifies those spirits causing illness and lack of fecundity, and she determines the nature of the sacrifice for them. These ceremonies involve the offering of pigs and chickens to these spirits to recapture the wandering souls and reestablish relationships of goodwill with such spirits. The priestess spirit medium also calls the spirit world to offerings when the village is not prospering. She performs the rituals and sacrifices that...

Invertebrate immunity

Most of the above-mentioned immune reactions are nonspecific (innate) with no accelerated or heightened response following secondary challenge and no memory component involved. Transplantation studies and mixed leukocyte cultures have shown, however, that in sponges, coelenterates, annelids, echinoderms and tunicates, allogeneic and xenogeneic recognition are present and that short-term memory may occur. The significance of these latter observations is discussed below.

Origins and comparisons of blood cells

Much research has attempted to detect the origin of the vertebrate lymphocyte and indeed cells resembling lymphocytes in morphology are present in many invertebrates. In most cases, these are immature progenitor cells although some workers believe that invertebrates possess cells homologous to vertebrate lymphocytes. In annelids, the presence of allograft and xenograft rejection with specificity and short-term memory, adoptive transfer, graft infiltration by lymphocyte-like cells and blastogenic responses towards transplantation and T cell mitogens, indicate that the blood cells involved may be analogous to vertebrate lymphocytes and have arisen by convergent evolution. Similar properties are

Evolution of recognition molecules

In contrast, the presence of allogeneic recognition of transplants in sponges, coelenterates, annelids, echinoderms and tunicates with a short-term memory component, indicates the presence of an ancestral MHC system. Furthermore, the alloimniune rejection process often involves lymphocyte-like cells with cytotoxic properties killing the allogeneic cells. On the basis of these results, Hildemann proposed that the histocompatibility system of cell-mediated immunity arose to deal with the threat of colony fusion in aquatic invertebrates and that the MHC complex is ancestral and entirely separate from the immunoglobulin systems of vertebrates. Immunoglobulins may have been added at the vertebrate level to provide a more extensive and sensitive immuno-recognition ability in these more complex animals. The integration of the MHC and immunoglobulin

Using Cbt With Children And Adolescents

When applying the CBT framework in the conceptualization and treatment of school-age children with problems, professionals must possess an understanding of the fundamentals of child and adolescent development. Those clinicians grounded in the nuts and bolts of development will avoid implementing interventions that are incompatible with a child's functional level. To benefit from a number of cognitive-based strategies, a child must have the capacity to attend to information, comprehend language, use working memory, and verbally express him- or herself. School-based practitioners should use and focus on these individual factors when designing a specific program for a student. In case conceptualization and treatment design, school-based clinicians should determine the precise mix of cognitive and behavioral techniques based on the student's developmental level. For instance, the more immature a student's cognitive or language development, the greater is the proportion of behavioral to...

Evaluation Of Cognitive Function

Domains of behavior may be classified as arousal, cognitive, social, motor, sensory, and motivational. Webster's dictionary defines cognition as the act or process of knowing, including both awareness and judgment. As such, it includes observation of the world and mental treatment of these inputs. Cognition can be subdivided into a number of components such as perception (e.g., odor, visual), action (e.g., exploration), learning (problem solving), and memory (long term and short term or working memory). In humans, some of these components can be further subdivided. For instance, long-term memory can be explicit (conscious storage and retrieval of information) or implicit (information is filed in the absence of conscious effort).

Other Cortical Areas

Neocortex also has several types of areas that are not strictly sensory or perceptual in nature and not closely tied to motor behavior, although neurons in these areas may respond to sensory stimuli and the areas may be closely involved in behavior. One such region of neocortex in primates is dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, where neurons appear to briefly retain information and be involved in short-term or working memory. Areas of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex have not been defined completely, but several areas probably exist. The more ventral cortex of the frontal lobe has areas that appear to provide evaluative functions and emotional tones to experienced events. Cingulate cortex along the medial wall of each cerebral hemisphere has rostral divisions that are more motor in function and caudal divisions that are more sensory in function. Areas of the cingulate cortex appear to be involved in instinctive behavior and motivation. In humans, other areas, usually in the left cerebral...

Nerve Cells And Pattern Recognition

One possible explanation for the seemingly different ways in which monkeys and humans process face recognition is that the neural substrates for recognizing faces and other classes of stimuli are not segregated as completely in monkeys as in humans. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the ventral occipi-totemporal cortex of the right hemisphere is primarily responsible for the perceptual analysis of faces. More anterior temporal regions are then activated for the association of face information with stored information about individuals. The frontal cortex appears to contribute both to the analysis of emotional facial expression and to the maintenance of faces within the short-term memory store. Interestingly, electrophy-siological experiments on patients going through presurgical epilepsy investigation have shown that large potentials are generated by faces and not by other categories of stimuli at very small sites within the ventral occipitotemporal cortex. These small...

Nerve Cells And Memory

From resolving all aspects of memory formation, converging evidence from psychology and neuroscience point to at least five major systems in humans. These are episodic memory, working memory, semantic memory, the perceptual representation system, and procedural memory (Fig. 2). Episodic memory Working memory Perceptual representation system Semantic memory Procedural memory Working memory is a memory system used for short-term retention, operating over periods of seconds. Working memory is used during reasoning, problem solving, and comprehending. The concept of working memory emerged among other things from studies of patients suffering from amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal damage. Such patients may for instance be able to immediately remember small numbers of digits. Studies on patients with hippocam-pal damage therefore have revealed that a separate memory system for short-term memory exists. Case reports on patients with selective deficits in working memory have suggested that...

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