Save Your Marriage

Save The Marriage

Lee Baucom, Ph. D. shows couples with marriage troubles a new way to save their marriage that is far more effective than any marriage counselor in this marriage course. In 4 easy-to-read modules, Dr. Baucom shows the step by step way to save a marriage that is in danger of ending any day. These show the top 5 mistakes that most people make in marriage, the REAL secrets to a happy marriage, why marriage counseling can actually HURT your marriage more, and how to move beyond your emotions into action. This module can actually have you saving your marriage in less than an hour, sometimes even 10 minutes. This book also comes with 4 bonus gifts free: Coping With a Midlife Marriage Crisis, Recovering from an Affair, 5 Rules for Fighting Fair, and an eBook written by a couple who was on the edge of divorce and the methods they used to get a happy marriage back. Marriage can be hard, but divorce is harder, on you and your children. Why risk it? Read more here...

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The Sense of Merger and Transcendence

Lovers may go beyond a sense of joint identity, may feel that they have in fact merged. Charles Williams said, Love you I am you, perhaps echoing Cathy's famous declaration, Nelly, I am Heathcliff. Lovers play on merging their names as a symbol of soulful merging. The Duke and Duchess of Windsor, in their love letters written before their marriage, referred to themselves as WE, the W standing for Wallis

Gender Related Social Groups

Historically, the basic unit of association was the nuclear or extended family, which existed within a village. There were no large kin-based or gender-based associations beyond these. Under Communism, concerns about privacy and safety from informants, as well as a general material scarcity and lack of funds for outside recreation, led most Czechs to associate mainly within the family or a close circle of relatives and friends. Today, the divorce rate is high, and young Czechs are marrying at a later age and are more geographically mobile than their parents' generation. Young Czechs still often socialize at least occasionally with their families, and a weekend at the family cottage (chata or chalupa) in the country is quite common, but many Czechs now comment on the erosion of the family associations which held under Communism.

Communicating your concerns

What can you do if he doesn't seem to take your symptoms seriously You need to find another doctor. But if you initially felt comfortable with this doctor, you may want to try and salvage your relationship. To take another stab at developing a good relationship, try the following

Courtship and Marriage

In the early decades of China's post-revolutionary period, marriage required parental approval. However, by the 1980s that was changing. In China's largest cities, a new generation had come of dating age and, through their ideas and actions, had expanded the customary notions of courtship, generating new expectations and demands for emotional satisfaction within marriage. Part of this thinking suggested that if dating could provide some emotional excitement and satisfaction, marriage could do the same. In this way marriage is no longer seen as primarily a vehicle for procreation, but rather it is regarded as the primary institution for achieving happiness, contentment, and emotional security. The folk notion that love and romance could be combined within marriage is not a recent phenomenon. The two were not perceived as antagonistic or mutually exclusive, barring unfavorable circumstances. What is new is the state's legal endorsement of free choice, and thus love, as a basis for...

Smell And Sexual Arousal

Throughout history aromas have been linked with sexual response. Perfume jars were preserved in the chambers designed for sexual relations in volcanic remnants of ancient Pompeii. Ancient Sumarians used perfumes to entice women. Traditional Chinese rituals highlight the relationship between smell and affection. Hieroglyphics also relate the two. Virtually all cultures use perfume in their marriage rites. In the modern world as well, the connection is pervasive. Use of perfumes and colognes as romantic enticements are a multibillion dollar business (8). The prominence of the historical connection between odors and sex among diverse cultures implies a high level of evolutionary

Husband Wife Relationship

The average age of first marriage for females has increased to 27, and the age disparity between bride and groom has decreased. Because young couples are now much more likely to live on their own, the nuclear family has become a more significant unit. For many Iranian wives, these changes translate into a more equal relationship with husbands. However, in other cases, couples left to their own devices feel their dissatisfaction more. Divorce rates have risen.

Relative Status of Men and Women

In traditional marriage, the bride has less say than the groom. Fathers may betroth their daughters at a young age the daughters have very little choice in the matter. The men perform brideservice as the girl matures, and when she has reached marriageable age, she is more or less forced to marry her official fiance or be punished by the spirits. Many young women prefer to flee the area and or work as prostitutes to earn money to compensate the groom for his brideservice they can then marry a man of their own choosing, who is closer in age and often in the same age set. Women are also relatively free to divorce, as long as the husband is compensated for brideservice and or children remain with the husband.

Scenarios For Discussion

How might this event affect the therapy and your relationship with the client much gotten over that. Their sex life is not good. Her husband enjoys anal intercourse, but she finds it frightening and painful. She tells you that she'd like to explore her resistance to this form of sexual behavior in her therapy. Her goal is to become comfortable engaging in the behavior so that she can please her husband, enjoy sex with him, and have a happy marriage.

Description Of Treatment

The family of origin or within other significant emotional relationships. These approaches vary in the extent to which they emphasize the unconscious nature of these relational patterns, the developmental period during which these maladaptive patterns are acquired, and the extent to which interpersonal anxieties derive from frustration of innate drives. However, a shared focus of insight-oriented strategies are previous relationship injuries resulting in sustained interpersonal vulnerabilities and related defensive strategies interfering with emotional intimacy, many of which operate beyond partners' conscious awareness. Consequently, insight-oriented approaches to couples therapy emphasize that partners' maladaptive relationship patterns are likely to continue until they are understood in a developmental context. This exploration and new understanding serve to reduce the couple's attendant anxiety in current relationships and permit them to develop alternative, healthier relationship...

The Anger Episode Model

Models Anger

And duration of the episode, and sets the stage for additional anger as a negative distorting filter likely to be applied to further actions by the trigger. Angry adults who are high on trait anger also report more mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, panic attacks, substance use, and marital problems, all of which have strong cognitive elements.

Other Cross Sex Relationships

The closest and deepest cross-sex relationship is that between sisters and brothers. Sisters are considered sacred by their consanguinal relatives, and their brothers ardently express this. Sisters are worshipped as goddesses during the fall harvest festival, and at other religious times in devout families. In return for sacred tributes such as clothing and money, sisters confer longevity and prosperity on their brothers. Brothers are expected to take care of their sisters until their marriage, and even after, if necessary.

When To See A Fertility Counselor

The counselor can assess the degree of nervous tension that you are feeling and how it's affecting your relationship with your partner and with others. The counselor can help you come to terms with realistic expectations. You'll also explore new ways to manage and cope with your stress. Friction and strain within your relationship with your partner

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Courtship is more public, and marriage has become more personalized and individualized. Traditional marriage ceremonies are rare events today. Some Yapese opt for a church wedding, but, more commonly, young couples just live together. Yapese women with an education and or job are taking more of an active role in selecting a spouse or making the decision to marry at all. Consequently, the number of female-headed households in Yap has increased greatly during the last few decades. Self-reliant single mothers are on the rise in Yap, and all indications are that their numbers will increase. Brothers and sisters now talk in public, but they still avoid conversations on sexual matters. Traditional kinship terminology is giving way to a kinship system that has been Americanized. Young Yapese boys and girls are unfamiliar with the details of Yapese kin terms and prescribed behaviors associated with them. Old limitations and restrictions placed on Yapese women continue to be lifted, and the...

Chronic Stress and Depression 1 Animal Research

The results of studies examining immune consequences of chronic stress in humans largely parallel the findings in animals. Research across a range of chronic stress situations, including bereavement, caregiving for a relative with dementia, unemployment, and diagnosis with a life-threatening illness, reveals that stressed individuals have altered immune function in comparison with controls. In contrast to the acute stress literature, chronic stress is typically, although not always, associated with lower numbers of immune cells and weaker immune functioning. In particular, chronic stress associated with the loss or disruption of personal relationships has been shown to reliably alter immune activity. For instance, women who have been separated or divorced for less than 1 year have demonstrated poorer immune function than married women, and both men and women who reported poor marital quality had lower immune function than more happily married individuals. Research has also suggested...

Gender and Religion

Cherokees also believed in witchcraft. Witches were human beings with special powers used for evil purposes. Misfortune was attributed to witchcraft and conjurors (medicine people) were sought to counter the evil. Conjurors had a range of skills from naming a baby to resolving marital problems. The spiritual and physical realms were not separate and illnesses had spiritual causes and cures. Both men and women could be medicine people and conjure cures (Perdue, 1998).

Functional Analytic Clinical Case Modeling

FIGURE 2 A functional analytic clinical case model (FACCM) of a Vietnam war veteran's drinking behavior and hypervigilance. Note. Using the example of the war veteran provided in the article, an FACCM can show both respondent and operant conditioning at work. An original causal variable, the combat experience, is paired with a variety of innocuous stimuli (smells, sounds, etc.) that will later remind the veteran of his combat experiences through respondent conditioning and generalization. The trauma of the combat experience leads to intrusive thoughts and recollections long after the veteran returns from the combat theater. Both environmental cues and the intrusive thoughts and recollections have the potential to elicit sympathetic nervous system activation (e.g., increased heart rate, respiration). Sympathetic nervous system activation can also reciprocally elicit intrusive thoughts and recollections (e.g., an increase in heart rate through exercise can trigger a combat memory). The...

Winnie Eng and Richard G Heimberg

As mentioned earlier, RP is an essential part of CBT for all disorders, but the strategy was initially developed for the treatment of people with alcohol use problems by G. Alan Marlatt. Drawing from research on self-efficacy, RP is based on the premise that the probability of relapse can be predicted by client's perceptions of their abilities to handle difficult situations. RP can be easily integrated into other treatments. Over the course of RP, clients are taught to identify high-risk situations and to use cognitive and behavioral coping strategies when they find themselves in such situations. Furthermore, cognitive techniques are used to help clients deal with inevitable lapses. Clients are taught to view a lapse as a one-time mistake, rather than a sign that they have failed or that they are failures. If clients come to view lapses in this way, a single lapse will be unlikely to evolve into a full-blown relapse. James R. McKay and his colleagues explored the efficacy of RP in a...

Common Direction Common Fate Good Continuation

Climates, as well as to identify problems of communication, evaluation, control, decision making, tension reduction, and reintegration. Chapple's model is more abstract than Bales' system and measures only the amount of talking, overlap, and lengths of contradiction. Both Bales' and Chapple's approaches avoid any mention of communication content per se. In other theoretical approaches, however, such as the experimental method in measuring communication, the actual communication processes are inferred from measurement of the conditions and the effect of the process. Some experimental approaches may control informal social communication processes by instruction and inputs from the experimenter with outcomes measured via questionnaires or joint actions by the group members (cf., actual communication sequences in methodologies such as simulations and role-playing scenarios). Theories and studies of interpersonal communication have focused, also, on the practical aspects of communication,...

Religious and Moral Issues

Most people today, along with philosophical ethicists, religious ethicists and organized religions, generally accept the morality of contraception within marriage, often appealing to the need for family planning. While recognizing a link between marital sexuality and procreation, many concede that marital sexuality also has other significant purposes such as expressing and enhancing the love union of the partners and thereby the good of the marriage. Unlimited procreation, or at times any procreation, could be harmful to one of the spouses, the marriage itself, the good of already existing children or the needs of the broader society. Judgments about the ethical use of contraception outside of marriage depends upon one's understanding of the morality of extramarital sexual activity. As a matter of fact, many unmarried people today are sexually active. Indeed, the majority of adolescents in the United States have had sexual intercourse by the time they are nineteen years old (Demetriou...

Behavioral Observation 1 Naturalistic Behavioral Observation

Analogue behavioral observation involves the measurement of a client's overt behavior in a contrived situation that is analogous to situations the client is likely to encounter in his or her environment. Example Code marital interactions during a marital therapy session.

David Reitman and Nichole Jurbergs

As it is most commonly known, CST is used to teach problem-solving skills, most frequently to help resolve parent-adolescent and marital conflict. Because of the diversity of programs, it is useful to identify specific operations common to all CST. First, most CST seeks to promote the clear expression and reception of meaning. Effective problem-solving requires minimizing negative communication habits and speeds the process of arriving at mutually favorable solutions. By contrast, emotionally charged accusations, frequent changes of topic, and interruptions frequently impede the promotion of clear communication. CST also attempts to teach the individual how to restructure attitudes (e.g., zero-sum or all or nothing thinking) that may inhibit or derail effective problem-solving. Second, CST trains of the best known interventions for relationship problems, behavioral marital therapy (BMT), represents an application of reinforcement principles to problems encountered in romantic...

Growthactualization Theory

The G-spot and other recent discoveries about human sexuality. New York Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Alzate, H., & Hoch, Z. (1986). The G-spot and female ejaculation A current appraisal. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 12, 211-220. Davidson, J. K., Darling, C. A., & Conway-Welch, C. (1989). The role of the Graefenberg spot and female ejaculation in the female orgasmic response An empirical analysis. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 15, 102-120.

The Sealed Record Controversy

Women who relinquish their infants often suffer a profound loss and experience lifelong difficulties. Like the child, they are encouraged by society to deny and repress the feelings that accompanied giving up their children for adoption. Some studies indicate that these women never forgive themselves. Some may feel they have no right to a happy marriage and other children, while others may try without success to have other children as replacements for the one that they relinquished (Deykin et al. Millen and Roll).

Demographic Risk Factors for Depression

Other demographic risk factors that have been consistently associated with depression include a family history of depression, low socioeconomic status, and specific stressful life events (including assaults and robberies, serious marital problems, divorce, loss of employment, serious illness, and significant financial problems). Research on the role of stressful life events has also found that specific buffers may protect against the development of depression. Some of the buffers include the existence of supportive relationships, the presence of three or fewer children, employment, self-identification with a religion, and the possession of clear roles in life.

The Psychological and Social Context of Domestic Abuse

The emotional, psychological, and physical consequences of abuse must be understood in their larger context of sexism, patriarchy, and paternalistic dominance (Lerner). Gerda Lerner defined sexism as the ideology of male supremacy, of male superiority, and of beliefs that support and sustain it (Lerner, p. 240). Sexism undergirds patriarchy, the institutionalization of male dominance over women and children in the family and the extension of male dominance over women in society in general (Lerner, p. 239). A sociological study of domestic abuse in Scotland documented the connection between domestic violence and patriarchal marriage. The researchers concluded that the law, the church, economic opportunities, appeals to science or to the natural order, and social customs all promote women's subordinate status in marriage. Women find their struggle to resist domination, including violence, within marriage labeled wrong, immoral, and a violation of the respect and loyalty a wife is...

Cultural Construction of Gender

One of the major problems with discussing gender among Puerto Ricans on the island is the limited research on gender as the central point of analysis across many subject areas. Some gender research areas such as women's and men's experiences and contributions to the labor force have amassed more attention and empirical research than other areas of gender scholarship, such as gender roles within marriage, the family, across the life-span, leisure, arts, sports, and sexuality. Moreover, there is a long history of scholarship that has created pathological models on Puerto Rican families. Although this scholarship is currently being challenged, it provides the basis

Mark J Williams and Robin B Jarrett

Reinforcers, or skills deficits (Bandura, 1977 Ferster, 1973). Examples of behavioral techniques include activity scheduling, behavioral marital therapy, self-control techniques, social skills training, and stress management techniques (see Lewinsohn, Gotlib, & Hautzinger, 1998, for overview of behavioral techniques). The treatment manual entitled The Coping with Depression Course outlines strategies often used in BT with depressed adults and adolescents (Lewinsohn, Antonuccio, Breckenridge, & Teri, 1984).

Intake Session and Inventory Assessments

Note While quantitative inventories are an important part of BMT, detailed description of the inventories is beyond the scope of this article. Briefly, however, Inventory (Inv.) 1 measures global marital satisfaction a score of 100 discriminates happy from unhappy couples. Inv. 2 measures steps toward divorce, range 0-14, a score of 4 or greater indicates significant risk. Inv. 3 measures the three named variables regarding individual function range is 0-8. Inv. 4 measures conflict potential in domestic activities happy couples average 7 total and unhappy 28 total for husband plus wife scores. Inv. 5 measures spouses' perceptions of maladaptive conflict responses, 0-8 scale happy couples average 1.35 per person, unhappy couples average 2.77. Inv. 6 measures proportion of rewarding activities each partner engages in, in five social formats. Happy couples endorse a balance of activities across all formats, including about 35 activities with spouse only. Inv. 7 measures various aspects...

Paternal and Maternal Parenting and Outcomes in Sons and Daughters

Earlier in this chapter, differences in fathers and mothers' interactions with their sons and daughters were reviewed, and it was shown that researchers have found that fathers and mothers exert a strong influence on such outcomes as youths' gender-role ideology. This section builds on those findings by briefly reviewing other consequences of maternal and paternal behavior for children's development, including self-esteem, psychological adjustment, and cognitive and academic competence. For example, Rohner and Veneziano (2001) reported on the work of Barber and Thomas (1986) who found that the cluster of conditions predicting adolescent daughters' self-esteem was different from those that predicted sons' self-esteem. Sons' self-esteem was best predicted by fathers' sustained physical contact (e.g., picking up the boy for fun and safety) and by mothers' companionship (i.e., spending time with the boy, and sharing activities with him), whereas daughters' self-esteem was best predicted...

Applications And Exclusions

The abilities to collaborate toward mutual objectives of change, to offer support and accommodation to one another while addressing the problems at hand, and, when necessary, to compromise with one another in resolving their defined problems. When these criteria are met, a combined emphasis on behavior exchange and communication problem-solving interventions has been quite effective. In comparison, because BMT is fundamentally change-oriented, the approach may be less effective when the couple's level of relationship distress is very high, one or both partners' commitment to the marriage is low, the issues in conflict are unlikely to change, the couple is invested in maintaining traditional sex roles, or the couple is unable or unwilling to collaborate, accommodate, or compromise with one another. In these cases, while couple therapy may be indicated, an approach less focused on behavior change probably would be more effective (e.g., integrative behavioral couple therapy,...

Theoretical Bases

Taking principles of social learning theory toward a theory of therapeutic change in couple therapy means assessing which attitudes, behaviors, and related problems constitute the complaints and target variables for intervention. The goal is to increase the rewarding and to decrease the punishing behaviors exchanged between partners and to identify and improve the nature of any cognitive and affective mediating variables that may influence the occurrence and interpretation of these behaviors.

The Effects of Kinship on Female Status in Marriage

Regardless of the balancing effects of the marriage contract, the patriclan system strongly influences gender status. Marriage is still understood as a conceptual transfer of belonging. In addition, male authority within marriage has been enhanced by the society's acceptance of Christianity. Women routinely ask permission first of their fathers and later of their husbands when they wish to engage in some activity, whether it is a serious step such as a trip to the mainland for medical treatment or accepting a job as a wage earner outside the home, or simply taking a ride down the beach or going to visit someone in their free time. The assumption is that girls were especially under the authority of their elders and their parents, with males within the family having more authority than

Marriage Arrangements Brideprice Grooms Service and Tradition Based Marriage Ceremonies

The pattern whereby men continue to work together within their families and with their fathers, brothers, and uncles as their primary allies, while women marry away from their original support base and must develop a new support base, is illustrated best through a description of the marriage process. (This discussion of courtship and marriage is based on Jolles 2002, pp. 121-149 and Jolles and Kaningok 1991 .) Marriage itself was once arranged by senior elders, and contemporary gender concepts and living patterns reflect older patterns common in the late 1800s and early 1900s. One aspect of marriage was lineal and clan alliance. Only since the late 1960s has it become accepted for young people to marry for love. Marriages in 2002 still included a buying ceremony in which the groom's ramket (clan group) collected gifts to be presented to the bride's ramket, particularly to the members of the bride's lineage. While no strict rules of exogamy apply in the village, the two largest clans,...

Socialization of Boys and Girls

Abaluyia value sons highly men want sons to insure generational continuity of self and clan, and women want sons to insure support in their old age. However, girls are also valued for their labor and for the wealth (cattle and money) their bridewealth will bring to their family when they marry, which in turn makes it possible for their brothers to pay bridewealth so they can marry. Increasingly, daughters are also being seen as providers of support for elderly parents. Malnutrition, though fairly common, affects girls and boys about equally, seeming to be more the result of poverty and marital conflicts than gender discrimination. Until recently, people wanted a large family with many sons and many daughters. However, in the past decade Kenya's birth rate has dropped drastically (even in Maragoli, long known for its high fertility), suggesting a new ideal of smaller families in a context of some improvement in women's economic empowerment.

Consent for Families and Other Multiple Clients

Individual psychotherapy is only one model for providing services. Sometimes clinicians provide therapy to couples, families, or groups. Therapists must ensure that adequate informed consent and informed refusal is provided for each person and that the consent addresses issues specific to therapy when more than one client is involved. For example, what are the limits of confidentiality and privilege for material disclosed by one of the clients Will the therapist hold confidential from one family member material disclosed by another family member If one client receiving couple therapy waives privilege, does the privilege still apply to the other member of the couple

Empirical Studies

BMT is the most widely evaluated form of marital treatment. For the past three decades, many direct studies and several meta-analytic investigations of multiple studies have confirmed that BMT, as an integrated approach, is a statistically and clinically efficacious treatment when compared to waiting list control groups and nonspecific treatment or placebo control groups. In general, the research has not found the specific components of BMT (i.e., behavioral exchange vs. communication problem-solving training) to be differentially effective, nor has BMT been demonstrably more or less effective than other marital therapy approaches to which it has been compared directly. Regarding the impact of BMT on couples' lives, reviews of multiple studies suggested that based on various relationship assessment scores obtained pre- and posttreatment, 56 to 66 of the couples treated with BMT improved significantly and 35 to 54 reported that their levels of marital satisfaction changed from the...

Supervised Clinical Work With Patients

Many programs offer an experiential conference to help students identify and enhance their empathic abilities and learn to listen to the way in which a patient moves from topic to topic in an unstructured interview (the associative process). These conferences were a major contribution of Dr. Lewis's model of psychotherapy education mentioned previously Learning experiences for the psychotherapist must eventually include observed and supervised therapeutic relationships involving brief and longer-term individual psychothera-pies utilizing psychodynamic, cognitive, interpersonal, and behavioral conceptual framework to organize the therapy. Analogous experiences should take place for conducting group, family, and marital therapy. The brief therapies learned should be both those that are brief because of a clinical decision to employ a focal or targeted psychotherapy and those therapies that are brief because of external limitations or constraints on the treatment relationship. These...

Cognitivebehavioral Interventions

Toseland and colleagues' (1995) intervention for caregivers of cancer patients represents the integration of problem-solving skills training with other cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies. Their intervention protocol, known as Coping with Cancer, is a six-session program combining supportive therapy, coping skills training, and problem-solving training. The problem-solving component involves training the caregivers in the use of the steps of the problem-solving process, much like those described by Nezu and D'Zurilla (1989). Within the context of a supportive therapeutic relationship, an oncology social worker helped caregivers take necessary steps to develop and implement potential solutions to three problems identified by each caregiver as being the most distressing or pressing. Adaptive coping responses to those problems were also discussed and reinforced when utilized. In sum, treatment plans consisted of the following goals reappraisal of problem situations, increasing...

Features of Marital Interaction Importance of the Marital Relationship

The expectations of spouses will also be influenced by cultural assumptions regarding the importance of the marriage. Where a culture views marriage as the primary source of emotional gratification and support in the life of an adult, men and women will bring these same hopes to their own marriage. The results of this attitude are captured in the words of an Omaha widower, who remarked that no one is so near, no one can ever be so dear as a wife when she dies, her husband's joy dies with her (Dorsey, 1884). By contrast, in societies where the marital bond is viewed as secondary to the bonds between other people, a husband and wife will expect less from their marriage. When asked about their expectations regarding marriage, men living in many different regions of India agreed that a wife provides sexual satisfaction and sons and a smoothly running household. Similarly, women agreed that husbands provided financial security, protection, and children. But neither sex looked to marriage...

Environmental Factors

Even if the familial transmission of bipolar disorder has been well established, the concordance rate between identical twins does not approach 100 , suggesting a combined role of genetic predisposition and environmental factors 67 . A bipolar parent with recurrent episodes is often dysfunctional, neglectful or absent, and this chronic or recurrent situation can influence the child's development 35,36 . Negative family interactions, including higher expressed emotions, have been proved to be predictive of relapse in bipolar adolescents and adults 68 , but studies considering the family environment in the presence of a bipolar parent, and its effect on offspring, are rare. Conrad and Hammen 69 evaluated the offspring of bipolar mothers and found that a better outcome was associated with social competence and a healthy father. Marital discord, parental divorce, a second parent with psychopathology, and chronicity of illness were predictors of psychopathology in children of bipolar...

Newlywed Customs

Newlywed customs are predictably related to other aspects of courtship and marriage. Thus it is uncommon to see newlyweds treated specially in societies where males and females choose their own spouses, where husbands and wives eat together, where special houses dedicated to male activities are absent, where males do not exhibit sexual aggression, and where wives do not tend to engage in extramarital sexual affairs. Newlywed customs are present where marriages are arranged by thirdly parties, where a husband and wife eat apart, where men's houses are present so that married males eat, sleep, and or spend their leisure time away from home, where males are sexually aggressive, and where wives typically carry on extramarital affairs. Thus newlywed customs seem to represent a strategy for allowing a newly married couple some time alone under circumstances where they have had no opportunity to become comfortable with each other prior to their marriage and where, further, their married life...

Social Support

As mentioned earlier, research examining the relationship between quality of personal relationships and immune function has demonstrated consistent immu-nosuppressive effects in individuals who reported low marital satisfaction or who recently lost a spouse. Similarly, social support has been linked with physiological processes associated with risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer, and less social integration is associated with higher mortality rates from all causes. Individuals with high levels of social support have lower baseline blood pressures than those with lower levels of support, and the presence of a supportive individual has been shown to decrease cardiovascular reactivity during an acute laboratory stressor.

Premacks Principle

Contingency management procedures have been used for other clinical groups as well. For example, they have been used successfully to address persons with polydip-sia, irritable bowel syndrome, vomiting, depression, marital problems, delusional verbalization, bedtime disruptions, pacifier use, and violent behavior. In addition, contingency management has been used to increase adaptive behaviors such as oral hygiene, appropriate eating, cooperation, productivity, homework, writing, and exercise.

Frank M Dattilio

The cognitive approach or cognitive component to behavioral marital and family therapy subsequently received attention as providing a supplement to behavioral-oriented couples and family therapy. In addition to the work of Ellis, an important study by Margolin and Weiss (1978), which suggested the effectiveness of a cognitive component to behavioral marital therapy, sparked further investigation of the use of cognitive techniques with dysfunctional couples (Dattilio & Padesky, 1990 Epstein & Baucom, 2002). Only a few studies have actually examined the impact of adding cognitive restructuring interventions to behavioral protocols, typically by substituting some sessions of cognitive interventions for behaviorally oriented sessions in order to maintain equality across the treatments that were compared (Dattilio & Epstein, 2003). The results suggest that the combination of cognitive and behavioral interventions was equally effective as the behavioral conditions, although...

Brian Baucom

In addition to focusing on behavior exchange, BCT also places a heavy emphasis on teaching couples the skills they need to communicate effectively. The importance of effective communication skills was first emphasized by Liberman in the early 1970s. Employing observational learning concepts from social learning theory, Liberman (1970) used role rehearsal and the modeling of alternative communication patterns in his work with distressed couples. Early observational studies showed the importance of communication patterns in finding frequent, highly negative interaction patterns that distinguished distressed couples from satisfied couples (Gottman, Markman, & Notarius, 1977). Coercion emerged as a pattern of interaction that is frequent in distressed relationships and particularly destructive to marital satisfaction. skills taught in therapy, the improvements in communication skills were not statistically related to increases in marital satisfaction (Iverson & Baucom, 1990)....


From its inception, the traditional interventions associated with BMT have included communication and problem-solving skills training and behavioral exchange techniques. Over the years, in many empirical studies, both interventions have been shown to be highly correlated with marital satisfaction. Although communication problem is probably the number one complaint of couples seeking therapy and most therapy approaches work on improving communication between partners in some manner, the hallmark of BMT has been direct training in skill acquisition. The therapist is likely to employ a basic communication training manual, such as We Can Work It Out, written by Clifford Notarius and Howard Markman in 1993. Throughout the course of treatment, the therapist employs any number of the following types of interventions to help couples modify their patterns of miscommunication and to acquire improved problemsolving skills didactic instruction, behavioral rehearsal, coaching and feedback about...


In cultures for which virginity is important, a girl or her family may pay a price if she is not a virgin at marriage. In some societies, the groom or his family traditionally present money or property to the bride or her family upon their marriage. Where virginity in a bride is expected or required, the value of the gifts may be less, or they may be forfeited altogether, if the girl is not a virgin. Sometimes, a marriage is called off if the bride cannot prove her virginity. If the bride or her family have presented gifts to the groom or his family, then the gifts may be kept even though no marriage takes place. In extreme cases, the bride may be killed. At a minimum, the bride and groom may be humiliated.

Treatment Progress

At the outset both Bob and Cindy seemed motivated to improve their marriage. While admitting to some emotional ambivalence about being with wife versus lover, Bob indicated that he wanted to stay with the family and make the marriage more rewarding. He had terminated contacts with his lover. Bob and Cindy made very good early progress. In fact, with only an average amount of direction, encouragement, repeated assignments, and reinforcement by the therapists, they did quite well through the beginning stage of therapy and part way through the middle stage.

Didactic Learning

Most educational systems for psychotherapy begin with didactic learning situations in which basic concepts of psychotherapy are presented. The main mental health disciplines in which psychotherapy is practiced are psychiatry, psychology, and social work. Each of these core disciplines has a wide variety of subspecial-ties. Each provides subspecialty training in different conceptual models for psychotherapy, such as psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and behavioral therapy. Each conceptual model informs therapy based on the constellation of participants in the therapeutic enterprise, such as individual, group, family, and marital therapy. What then can be considered basic concepts that should inform all psychotherapy education This chapter will proceed with the basic assumption that individual psychotherapy is the fundamental cornerstone for developing broad psychotherapy competence. Other therapeutic constellations, such as group, family, or marital therapy will...

Andrea M Chronis

Although there is some evidence to suggest that participation in parent training may improve parent stress, parenting self-esteem, and marital adjustment, parent functioning is typically not addressed in most parent training programs. This is concerning when one considers evidence suggesting that parents' personal and marital problems are associated with poorer compliance with and outcomes following parent training. These findings are not surprising given that distressed individuals often lack motivation to complete effortful tasks that require ongoing work. Therefore, it can be concluded that standard treatment for children with ADHD and behavior problems should include assessment and treatment of parental psychopathology and or marital discord, as these problems may impact parents' ability to effectively implement behavior management techniques. Relatively few studies have evaluated the incremental benefit of adding a parent enhancement component to standard behavioral parent...


Other research studies have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and hypochondriasis. It has also been shown to be effective for inpatient depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, phobias, social phobia, marital problems, and some personality disorders. Combined with pharmacotherapy, it is effective for the symptoms of bipolar disorder and even schizophrenia.

Patient Variables

Each patient entering treatment brings a diverse array of factors when presenting to the clinician. These include, but are not limited to, a variety of psychological disorders, physical complaints, historical backgrounds, stresses, and the quality of their social support networks. Patient variables found to have a relationship with outcome are severity of disturbance, motivation and expectancy, capacity to relate, degree of integration, coherence, perfectionism, and ability to recognize and verbalize focalized problems. Therefore, patients suffering from challenging symptoms as well as relative deficits in numerous patient variable categories are likely to experience negligible improvement during treatment. For example, the borderline, alcoholic patient with suicidal tendencies who is forced into treatment, believing that most marital problems are a result of an insensitive spouse, is likely to benefit less from treatment than the depressed patient who voluntarily begins treatment, is...

Carolyn Zerbe Enns

Feminist analysis and power analysis refer to various methods for helping clients understand how unequal access to power and resources can influence personal choices and distress. Therapists and clients explore how inequities or institutional and cultural barriers may limit or complicate self-definitions, achievements, and well-being. To facilitate this process, therapists may provide information about dynamics or statistics associated with problems related to the unequal distribution of power (e.g., family violence, divorce, traditional marriage, sexual abuse). They also use open-ended questions to explore these dynamics and how clients can develop positive, personal approaches to power and relationships that empower themselves and others. Bibliotherapy, therapist self-disclosure, and psychoeducational groups may also be incorporated into feminist analysis.


In their analysis of human reproductive cloning, Protestant scholars also seriously consider the impact that asexual reproduction may have on the societal norms of marriage, childbearing, and how humans are likely to view and value human clones. Protestants often maintain a normative Biblical view of the child as a being conceived within marriage, a gift from God, and the result of a loving relationship

Biological Basis

Primary sleep enuresis is caused by a combination of genetic, maturational, psychosocial, and endocrinological factors the relative importance of each of these varies across individuals. Anatomic abnormalities of the genitourinary system and other sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea are uncommon in enuretic children although they may contribute to enuresis in some (Friman, 1995). Psychosocial factors that may contribute to or exacerbate enuresis include marital discord, parental separation, sexual abuse, and birth of a sibling.


Different methods of gathering information to understand the problems and strengths of a given relationship and to plan various interventions to accomplish the therapeutic goals. First, there are a series of semi-structured clinical interviews, typically 2 to 3 sessions, which often include separate meetings with each partner as well as meeting the couple in a conjoint format. In general, the objectives of these so-called assessment interviews are to (1) screen clients for the appropriateness of couple therapy, (2) determine the nature and course of events related to partners' presenting complaints, (3) determine the goals and objectives of the partners for couple therapy, (4) establish an effective therapeutic relationship, and (5) orient the couple to the therapist's orientation and approach to treatment. Each partner has one or more reasons for initiating couple therapy. Typically, in the first meeting, the therapist will help the partners to develop a problem list, which indicates...


Senior male members of the husband's kwv tij are expected to intervene when a couple are having serious marital problems. The wife's birth family, the neej tsa, becomes involved, short of a divorce action, only when the husband's side either invites their help or ignores the problem entirely. If a marriage cannot be repaired, elders representing both sides must determine fault, decide the disposition of the marriage payment, and levy additional penalties if warranted. Every attempt is made to avoid divorce because of the threat it poses for relationships between the kwv tij and neej tsa. In Laos, a woman risked losing everything, including her children, if she insisted on divorcing despite efforts at appeasement made by the husband and his kwv tij. Access to the courts in the United States has given Hmong women more rights with respect to child custody and support (Thao, 1986).

Mending The Marriage

Mending The Marriage

Patch The Holes Of Your Marriage And Experience The Feeling Of New Love. Marriage is the most delicate and in most of the cases most important relationship known in this world. Our life has become very rigid and busy and this rigid life has made lots of things go wrong and one of the very important areas is marriage which gets affected due to our unhealthy, unsocial and sometimes senseless living style.

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