Real Masculinity and Manhood

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Cross Cultural Studies of Masculinity Femininity

Turning to cross-cultural research, measurement is particularly important in studies of gender. A problem arises, for example, when a masculinity femininity scale developed in one country, often the United States, is translated into another language and administered to persons in other cultures. Spence and Helmreich's (1978) study illustrates this problem. They compared the self-descriptive responses of men in the United States and in Brazil to the PAQ which contains positively valued traits that American research participants identified as male-associated and female-associated. In their study, American men endorsed more male-associated traits than female-associated traits, but Brazilian men had the opposite pattern. Does this mean that Brazilian men have more feminine self-concepts than American men Probably not. This interpretation pays little attention to how each culture defines masculinity and femininity. Cross-culturally, some items in translated scales...

Gender over the Life Cycle

This describes any special rites of passage marking the transition from boyhood to manhood and or from girlhood to womanhood. If there are no special rites, when are the genders considered adults What behavioral changes are expected with adulthood

Variation in Gender Constructs

Some societies construct gender so as to contain distinct categories that are neither masculine nor feminine. In all instances, there is an initial transformation from genderless to gendered. But in two of these there is a distinct transformational process that takes place after the initial one has begun. For example, although physiologically intersexed individuals are recognizable at birth, and the Navajo place them in a third category, nadle, the Navajo also recognize a group of people they call those who pretend to be (or play the part of) nadle (Hill, 1935). These individuals come to their status after having begun socialization as masculine or feminine.

Nonwestern Bipolar Constructs

Since all cultures contain at least masculine and feminine categories, it is probably also the case that none of those definitions completely matches contemporary Western categories. For example, Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania, or Wodaabi Fulani in the Sahel, are peoples with bipolar gender constructs. But when it comes to cultural definitions of masculine dress, jewelry, or decoration, they are very different from the business suit, wrist watch, and ring model of the Western world.

Only Two Genders or More

Murray (2000) tries to subsume all nonstandard non-heterosexual relationships under a model of three different types of homosexuality. The result is a shift of focus from sociocultural gender constructs to culturally mediated sexual activity. His entire book, which contains a wealth of carefully considered ethnographic material, is largely male oriented and organized around cultural definitions of who takes dominant or receptive positions. While some of his data fit that construct, his model, which denies the possibility of gender constructs beyond masculine and feminine, cannot deal with instances such as that noted by Jacobs and Cromwell (1992), while exploring the cultural construction of kwido, a Tewa third-gender category, one of those positions that Williams (1992) would include under the general term berdache. Tahiti and the other Society Islands represent one type of tripolar sex-gender-sexuality system, in which there is only a single category beyond masculine and feminine,...

Previous Research on Stereotypes in the United States

In the development of their Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), Spence, Helmreich, and Stapp (1974) revised the Brovermans' questionnaire by simplifying the format and removing the oppositeness of the ratings. The original PAQ contained only socially desirable items, but a later version also included undesirable traits (Spence & Holahan, 1979). Research participants described themselves with both female and male traits, permitting the assessment of androgyny (i.e., possessing characteristics of both sexes). Thus masculinity and femininity were considered a duality that could coexist in every person. Bem (1974, 1975) took a similar conceptual approach in developing the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Masculinity and femininity are treated as separate dimensions, and persons can be characterized as masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated. Items judged by students to be more desirable in American society for one sex or the other were included in the BSRI. Stereotypes...

Sex Role Studies in the United States

Researchers generally classify sex role ideologies or beliefs along a continuum from traditional to modern. Traditional ideologies maintain that men are more important than women and that it is appropriate for men to control and dominate women. In contrast, modern ideologies are more egalitarian, claiming that women and men are equally important, and dominance of one sex over the other is inappropriate. Research in the United States has assumed that there is individual variation in sex role ideology. More masculine men and more feminine women are expected to have more traditional sex role beliefs, and more androgynous men and women would be more egalitarian.

Development of Gender Roles and Stereotypes

Within the context of cultural stereotypes about male-female differences, children's knowledge of gender roles develops. In the United States, children as young as 2 years of age stereotype objects as masculine or feminine (Thompson, 1975 Weinraub et al., 1984), and by age 3-4 years they use stereotypic labels accurately with toys, activities, and occupations (Edelbrook & Sugawara,

Childrens Companionship Age Gender and Kinship

Seem to seek interaction with companions who are not their family members but who are like them in other ways. They may show avoidant or exclusive behavior toward children not of their gender, especially when they are playing in large groups (Whiting & Edwards, 1988). Research shows that children's play in these single-gender groups involves high proportions of both egoistic conflict and sociability play behaviors, as if the children are using the group as a laboratory for learning how to negotiate and get along with peers in the culturally approved masculine or feminine way (Maccoby, 1998).

Overview of Sex Differences in Emotion

Whissell (1996) also compared sex differences obtained on the basis of self-ratings, scales, and inventories (actual sex differences) with those obtained when individuals were required to make stereotyped judgments (e.g., Is anger a masculine or feminine emotion ). Stereotyped sex differences were almost always in the same direction as but larger than real ones, and it was

Cross Cultural Differences in Leadership Behavior

Leadership behavior varies in different countries. Whyte (1978) claims that even in most preindustrial societies, men held political leadership positions. Hofstede (1980a) has examined cross-cultural differences in work-related values, for instance the masculinity-femininity dimension. He conducted a study on a large number of employees of a multinational corporation that has offices all over the world. He found countries such as Japan, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, and Venezuela to be masculine countries, where sex roles are clearly differentiated, and men dominate and exercise power in traditional terms. In feminine countries, such as the Scandinavian countries (including Finland) and the Netherlands, emphasis is placed on cooperation and greater gender equality prevails in society and organizational culture group decision-making is encouraged, managers give greater autonomy to subordinates, and hierarchical differences are not emphasized (McKenna, 2000). In other words, power...

Sex Differences in Communication Patterns of Leaders

Carli & Eagly (1999) claim that patterns of interaction in groups place women at a disadvantage. Henley (1977) argues that much of the nonverbal communication that characterizes male-female relationships follows a pattern parallel to that of superior-subordinate relationships, since women are more often in subordinate positions than men. Garsombke (1988) claims that organizational vocabulary is masculine, since many typical expressions used in business, such as strategy and headquarters, originate from wars and male-led organizations. Gardiner and Tiggemann (1999) claim that in female-dominated industries women managers were more interpersonally orientated than men, but women and men did not differ in male-dominated industries. On the

Gender Power in Organizations

Most classic organizational texts were written from a masculine perspective and failed to analyze the significance of gender, or the relationships among sex, gender, organizations, and power, in any explicit manner (e.g., Hearn & Parkin, 1992). In many contemporary organizational texts gender is increasingly referred to. Yet it is often included in a brief, marginalized, and unanalytic manner (Gherardi, 1995 Green, Parkin, & Hearn, 1997).

Patriarchal Power in Organizations

In western organizations the ideal of a good manager is still implicitly included in the notion of hegemonic masculinity that represents qualities such as competitive, aggressive, nonemotional, goal orientated, and psychologically and physically strong (Connell, 1987). Hegemonic masculinity is the culturally dominant and most powerful form of masculinity. It is based on heroism, where the hero controls and guides his subordinates (Block, 1996, 1999). The dominant forms of masculinity, construed in aversion to femininity, are those that dictate how organizations are managed (Cheng, 1996). Patriarchal leadership was common, and possibly functioning, in times when people worked in hierarchic organizations where work was organized into assembly lines (Block, 1996, 1999), but, according to Koivunen (2002), patriarchal leadership does not fit today's more flexible expert organizations. Leadership by partnership, a concept brought forward by Block (1996, 1999), where jointly agreed goals are...

Boyhood and Coming of

Rites of passage into manhood vary cross-culturally but often include common elements relevant to war preparation. Gilmore (1990, pp. 11-20) argues that a broad sweep of cultures reflect the central theme that men are made, not born. Men must take actions, undergo ordeals, or pass tests in order to become men. In rites of passage, only select men can achieve manhood, and it must be won individually. Rituals typically inflict pain on adolescent males and force them not to cry out, on pain of lifelong shame if they fail. In some especially war-prone societies, men have had to kill an enemy to be considered a man or to marry. In others, near-universal male conscription marks a passage to manhood. These various passages, based on passing harsh tests bravely, adapt males for war (Goldstein, 2001, pp. 264-267).

Analysis and Explanations

We can describe the psychological world of the committed religious believer as a pyramid made of three tiers. The top of the pyramid is the religious pantheon, made up of imaginary invisible creatures. Then we have actual humans who constitute the religious hierarchy. The broad base of the pyramid is made up of the followers, who are the largest group. As we get closer to the top of this pyramid, we find fewer and fewer females, and as we move to the bottom tier, we find a female majority. The pantheon, which includes gods, angels, saints, and mystics, has little room for women (Carroll, 1979). The world of religious figures, real and imagined, which has in it angels, demons, saints, founders, prophets, priests, is thus a masculine universe. It was obviously created by men, reflecting their wishes, so why are women so willing to adopt this masculine universe and commit themselves to it

Psychological Femininity

What we observe is that the priesthood in many cultures presents indications of an ambiguous and conflicted sexual identity. The idea of a third sex appeared in both emic and etic discourse in many cultures, from the masculine feminine shaman to European priesthood. Transcending normal sex roles through sex gender ambiguity or androgyny is tied to spiritual prowess or religious authority in many cultures. The discussion of celibacy regarding Roman Catholic priests is one modern example. Research on the clergy in Western cultures shows the relevance of these notions. It turns out that Western clergy are similar to traditional shamans. Francis (1991) tested British candidates for the clergy (men and women) and concluded that male clergy are more feminine, and female clergy more masculine, than the averages for their sexes. Clergy seem to be different from the general population in terms of sexuality. It has only been possible fairly recently for data on homosexuality to be...

Other Unisex Associations Besides Age Sets

Age-sets are not the most common unisex associations in noncommercial societies. Many societies have male associations with initiation rites that provide a dramatic (and often traumatic) way for boys to become transformed from boys to manhood. These men's groups often have a building where initiates and adult men may meet and sleep. A number of ideas have been put forward to explain male initiation ceremonies, ranging from a way to help boys resolve psychological conflicts in sex-role identification (Burton & Whiting, 1961 Whiting,

What Women Are Like Ideology and Religion

Certain religious beliefs also correlate with female status. Sanday (1981) argues that the gender of the creator(s) in a given society is linked to the status of women and men in the society. Societies with egalitarian gender relations tend to believe in a female creator or a male-female creator pair, while male-dominant societies have creators that take the form of human males or animals. Myths, especially origin myths, with feminine symbolism are charters that grant power to women, while masculine symbols grant power to men. The egalitarian

Profiles of Animal Rights Advocates

Studies have shown that regardless of gender, those who adopt the traditional feminine sex role (more caring and sensitive to the concerns of others, in contrast to the more masculine domination and nondifferentiation as defined by the Bem Sex Role Inventory) are most likely to support animal rights ideals. Not surprisingly, animal rights advocates are often vegetarians (see VEGETARIANISM). They are often concerned about domination by one individual or group over others. Generally liberal, both religiously and politically, supporters of the animal rights movement* are more likely to be ecologically concerned and to have a more negative view of the military than those who oppose this movement. As a group, animal rights advocates tend to be more empathic and are likely to rely more on their feelings and intuitions (to be classified as feeling and intuitive types on the Myers-Briggs

Psychodynamic Approaches

Whiting and Whiting (1975) proposed an alternative psychodynamic explanation for marital aloofness. Their focus was on the need for male warriors with accumulated wealth. In such societies, males guard the family property, which means that husbands and wives often eat and sleep apart. The Whitings reasoned that, in such circumstances, little boys, raised largely by their mothers, would come to view women as the source of power and form an initial identification with females. When, later in their development, boys came to recognize that it is the men who have the power, they would unconsciously turn away from their original identification with females. Further, as a way of compensating for their initial cross-sex identification, males would begin to exhibit extremely masculine behavior, for instance in the form of aggression and pursuit of military glory, and also avoid women, especially their wives.

Transgender The Israeli Experience

In Israel, one can obtain free surgery for sex change through the national health system, following an evaluation and approval by a specialized gender identity committee. Other features, which may be unique to the Israeli society, are army service, the dominant influence of religion, and the strong nationalistic sentiments. These features impact the discourse on sex and gender and tend to be more transsexual confirming and less focused on identity politics. Despite the open and liberal nature of Israel towards the transsexual transgendered person, there is a rigidity and polarization of femininity and masculinity in Israeli society.

Psychology of Sexual Aggression

Subject, other than noting female fears of rape and female rape fantasies. Freud (1896 1961) believed that humans are innately incestuous and for a time argued that female hysteria was the consequence of incest. However, the Victorian society that Freud worked in believed incest to be rare and the act of primitives. Freud repudiated his theory less than a year after proposing it (Meigs & Barlow, 2002). Wilhelm Reich briefly considered a masculine ideology of rape (Brownmiller, 1975, pp. 11-12), but it was latter-day feminists who explored the cultures and social conditions of rape and other sexual aggression. Even today, many psychologists treat sexual aggression as deviance, focusing on the reform or medication of perpetrators and on the consequences of sexual aggression for victims. Psychologists differ on causes, but most side with nature in the nature-nurture controversy, assuming dominance and sexual aggression to be natural male traits that are exaggerated in some males....

Violence and the Other

Violence in America and other complex societies has many inflections. Gender and race combined in stereotypes supporting sexual aggression against female slaves and Native American women, while myths of the voracious sexual appetites of African American men and other minorities condoned mob justice in the American South. Congolese leaders and soldiers cast the rape of Belgian women in the newly independent Congo as acts of vengeance against Belgian men rather than sexual assault (Brownmiller, 1975, pp. 138-139). The link between sexuality, gender stratification, and violence against the other is clear in aggression against homosexuals and other sexual anomalies in Western societies. In What Price Independence , Weitz (1984) explores social reactions to lesbians, spinsters, widows, and nuns. Weitz (p. 455) argues that as more women live lives independent of men, men see their power in society threatened and all unmarried women face a risk of stigmatization and punishment, one...

Socialization of Boys and Girls

Breast milk or food is not withheld from children of either sex. Depending on the socioeconomic and educational background of the family, girls are often given music and art lessons. Urban Armenian families strive to bring up their daughters to be cultured and courteous young woman who will one day become respected homemakers (dahn deegeen). Regardless of whether or not a woman has a career, and many urban women in Armenia have careers, a woman must also be a good homemaker and be able to keep an immaculate home, cook traditional meals, and bake exquisite pastries. In rural areas, where women do not pursue careers, girls are taught to cook, clean, grow vegetables, and tend to the farm animals they are not given music and art lessons. In urban areas, boys are encouraged to play sports and chess, and to take music lessons. In rural areas, boys work as shepherds or help their fathers in the fields. Boys in urban and rural areas are discouraged from helping their mothers with household...

Cultural Construction of Gender

Gender identity is expressed by clothing and hairstyle throughout life. A baby's apparel may indicate gender by the shape of the cap if the family is wealthy enough to make such a distinction. Boys ideally wear the typical Andean chullo, a knitted cap with ear flaps, while a girl's knitted cap is more conical with a soft floppy edge and brighter colors. Other baby clothes are quite unisex, with swaddling rags and open diaper skirts for all toddlers. Beyond infancy, headgear always differs by gender, with feminine and masculine styles of brimmed hat added as the children become marriageable adolescents. (Men simply put their brimmed hats over their knitted caps.) Perhaps the best-known Aymara woman's hat is the bowler worn by the women of the Titicaca basin, but styles vary by region.

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

See above in Gender-Related Social Groups. In the performing arts, the genders have for the most part been separated, with men dominating positions requiring leadership, knowledge, and authority. Men play the gamelan (percussion orchestra), perform as dalang (puppet-masters, narrating the epics and operating puppets), and participate in chanting groups (papaosan), an activity which requires knowledge of the epics and other arcane texts. Most dances and dramatic roles are identified as either male or female, and qualities of ideal masculinity and femininity are embodied in these dances and roles. Women's main participation in the arts is as dancers. Tourist patronage of the performing arts has radically changed genres, roles, ideas of sacred and profane, and patronage, as well as the practical organization such as length of time of performances, choice of libretto, costuming, venues, and costumes.

Gender Roles in Economics

Many Cherokee men continued to hunt because it was one of the things that defined masculinity in their culture. As wildlife disappeared, Cherokee men restocked their hunting grounds with cattle and hogs. Horse stealing also became a substitute for war and a medium of exchange in the first decade of the 19th century (Perdue, 1995). In 1828, after 30 years of the civilization program, Cherokee men still had not fully adapted to farming. Throughout this time, men handled foreign policy and served as intermediaries between women and the federal government. Cherokee women and men adapted to new circumstances according to old definitions.

Personality Differences by Gender

Such differences are not in evidence in Kalymnos to the same degree as reported for more patrilineal patriarchal areas of Greece, where men are expected to be aggressive, to perform their masculinity, and women are expected to be modest, reticent, and deferential (Campbell, 1964 du Boulay, 1974 Herzfeld, 1985, 1991). Women's words are not seen as a threat to the matrilocal group in the way that they would be in patrilocal situations, where women at marriage are outsiders who must prove their loyalty to the group (Hirschon, 1978). Thus women are voluble and hold the floor with men on a panoply of topics from sex

Leadership in Public Arenas

During the socialist era, when the Party held all true leadership and representation was largely for show, women were represented at all levels of national and local governance. In 1987, women made up 21 of Hungary's parliament (LaFont, 2001). With the transition, when political power became real and representation vitally important, women have become less and less visible in formal governing processes. Party politics quickly became male dominated by 1993 women held only 6.7 of parliamentary seats (8.5 in 1998 Levai & Kiss, 1999) and masculine issues dominated the agenda (Koncz, 1995). In part because of the history of the socialist state's concern with women and gender equality, since 1990 men and women alike have been reluctant to raise these as political issues. In addition, the few feminist or womanist organizations that developed in Hungary after 1990 have changed their focus or disappeared in the past decade (Szalai, 1998).

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

In the 1990s, a men's movement led by Professor Barry Chevannes and others at the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies took shape. Chevannes organized workshops for men throughout the island to foster male responsibility, to help men learn to express their emotions, and to discuss their fears about the challenges of fatherhood and partnerships with liberated women. Whereas in the 1980s the popular press featured numerous articles for women on acquiring ladylike mannerisms, newspapers in the 1990s featured the topic of manhood extensively. Coverage of the crisis of masculinity, the increase in male school dropouts, crime, and idleness reflected increasing discomfort with traditional notions of male dominance, the turmoil created by women's growing economic independence, and the need to develop new models of male responsibility. Since the benchmark of manhood has been to provide material support for children, men are expressing mounting frustration in their inability to find...

The Settings of Socialization

The Children of Different Worlds spot observations revealed boys to be generally farther from home than were girls, in contexts that are considered weak in regard to gender socialization but strong in terms of peer pressure. Girls' movement away from the home was restricted in some societies, and they left the home area most often when following a predictable path doing a directed chore such as gathering water, collecting firewood, or going to the shop (Whiting & Edwards, 1988). Boys had more freedom to wander beyond the home environment in undirected play where they were less accountable to figures of authority and perhaps more free to experiment in their behavior and follow their curiosity. On the other hand, we know from other research that when boys play together in groups, they strongly pressure one another toward what they consider masculine behavior (by ridiculing boys who do not measure up) (Carter & McCloskey, 1984 Fagot, 1984). Thus, boys turn their free play away from...

Cross Cultural Sex Role Studies

Cross-cultural research has examined variation in sex role ideology between cultural groups. Using Hofstede's terminology, one would assume that traditional ideologies would be found in masculine cultures and modern ideologies in feminine cultures. In their 14-country study of masculinity and femininity described above, Williams and Best (1990b) had study participants respond to the 30-item Kalin Sex Role Ideology measure (SRI) (Kalin & Tilby, 1978) (e.g., The husband should be regarded as the legal representative of the family group in all matters of law). To date, this study includes the largest number and variety of countries to be examined in a single-sex role study.

Gender and Religion

The Nahua view the cosmos as governed by the interaction of powerful feminine and masculine forces associated with the earth and the sky. The ancient Nahuas had male and female creator deities, Tonacateuctli (Lord of the Sun) and Tonacacihuatl (Lady of the Sun), and the contemporary Nahuas continue to depict their main creator gods in pairs (Sandstrom, 1991). Contemporary cosmology, particularly in isolated and monolingual Nahua-speaking communities, resembles that of the ancient Nahuas (Taggart, 1983, 1997). While many of the original creation myths have been lost, Nahuas of today continue to express their belief in hierogamy (Eliade, 1987, p. 89) or the notion that divine creation is a process on the same order as human and plant reproduction. The Nahuat of the sierra norte de Puebla depict the gods creating the universe as masculine lightning bolts emanating from the sun and fertilizing the feminine earth. They also tell stories of men finding lightning-bolt women in the forest who...

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Relations between mothers and infants are warm and nurturing. Relations between fathers and infants in the past were distant. The Nandi belief in feminine-child pollution (kerek), a mystical substance emanating from babies and breast-milk that destroys masculine character traits, prevented fathers from having close contact with infants. By the 1970s, most young men had given up belief in kerek, and fathers could be seen holding and

Gender Identity and Gender Expression

Gender activism generally rejects the idea that only people with a particular biological endowment may participate in masculinity or femininity. This approach is part of a larger critique of gender roles that are constructed from opposed conceptions of male and female (MacKenzie Feinberg). A number of commentators point out that some societies have successfully incorporated more diffuse notions of gender identity and gender roles Native American tribes are commonly cited examples (Williams Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang).

Triangles And The Oedipus Complex

Triangulation may be used to punish a disappointing or errant lover, or to even out the score. A husband may believe he has forgiven his wife after she confesses a prior affair, only to feel himself drawn into a love affair of his own shortly thereafter. Triangulation may also be used to re-establish a sense of gender adequacy when one's femininity or masculinity has been damaged by a competitive defeat, either erotic or non-erotic. For example, a man who has received a shattering blow at work may be more than usually vulnerable to the ministrations of his adoring secretary. Alternately, triangulation may be used to alter not one's own self-image, but one's image in a lover's eyes, with one lover hoping to pique the other's interest and coax fading love back to full intensity through the agency of jealousy. Triangulation may even be used as a self-punishment. A lover who is radiantly happy in love may experience guilt at his great good fortune, and he too may embark on a triangular...

Phallic Oathpenis Holding

The French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan (1901-1981) formulated the phallus theory according to which the phallus penis is a symbol of desire where the Freudian Oedipal complex is revised to involve a conflict between being versus not being a phallus (or having versus not having a phallus), and where it plays a different role in the desires of each of the three parties (child, mother, and father) of the complex (cf., phallic oath penis holding - according to anthropological evidence, this refers to the swearing of an oath, or a greeting, accompanied by one's own hand on one's own penis or testicles, or on someone else's penis, as a sign of respect and or a gesture of solemnity). The erect phallus penis is considered, traditionally, as a symbol of masculinity, potency, or generation (cf., the term linga, which is the Hindu equivalent for the phallus and is manifested in the phallic image of the Hindu god Shiva). According to Freudian theory, during the phallic stage of...

Theoretical Bases

During the first decade of feminist therapy practice, practitioners tended to be most concerned with responding effectively and immediately to the extensive gender-related problems that had been ignored, marginalized, or distorted by the lenses of mental health professions that had been dominated by androcentric theories and practices. The feminist critique of the mental health professions focused primarily on four overlapping issues (1) personality theories and research that supported biased models of therapy (2) double standards of mental health that overvalued attributes described as masculine and devalued attributes labeled as feminine (3) diagnostic practices that contributed to labeling clients without regard to contextual, situational contributors to distress and (4) psychotherapy relationships in which an all-powerful therapist defined reality for the client.

Victimization Of Animals

In some literary works, the killing of animals proves or restores the virility of males. D. H. Lawrence's The Fox illustrates this theme when a man shoots a particularly mesmerizing fox and ultimately gains a similarly hypnotic power over the female protagonist. Even the appreciation of animal death* can prove manhood, as the aficion of Ernest Hemingway's castrated hero Jake for the bullfight demonstrates in The Sun Also Rises.

Attainment of Adulthood

In the Caribbean, rites of passage indicating the transition from boyhood to manhood include engaging in heterosexual sex, and fathering and providing financially for one's own children. The transition from girlhood to womanhood is marked by rites such as reaching menarche and giving birth to one's own child. Caribbean men gain status and respect, and are considered adults, when they can provide for their families (Leo-Rhynie, 1997, p. 35). Young women gain status in their communities when they assume motherhood (Leo-Rhynie, 1997, p. 34).

Gender over the Life Cycle Socialization of Boys and Girls

The number of loincloths worn by a Yapese male varies with age. A small boy wears one wrapping. Sometime between the ages of 7 and 12 a second wrap is added and then a third when he reaches puberty. The final item of the male ensemble is the kafaar, hibiscus wrap, which is overlaid with the loincloth. The Yapese boy who wears the kafaar is seen as having attained manhood. No similar stages in dress exists for Yapese females. Yapese women wear grass skirts (both an inner and outer skirt) which can be made from grasses, bananas, or hibiscus. For both sexes, aspects of dress have been heavily influenced by Western styles, and it is rare to find Yapese in traditional dress outside the village environment.

The Straight and Narrow Path of Gender

Gender Identity Disorder . . . is not meant to describe a child's nonconformity to stereotypic sex-role behaviour as, for example, in tomboyishness in girls or sissyish behaviour in boys. Rather, it represents a profound disturbance of the individual's sense of identity with regard to maleness or femaleness. Behaviour in children that merely does not fit the cultural stereotype of masculinity or femininity should not be given the diagnosis unless the full syndrome is present, including marked distress or impairment. (DSM 1994 536) Or, put more bluntly, studies have shown that effeminate boys more often grow up as homosexuals than as transsexuals (Gelder et al. 1996 507). This raises questions about precisely which adulthood disorder is being targeted through the treatment of CGID homosexuality or trans-sexuality. And as with intersex surgery, the emphasis of CGID treatment appears to be on defending the boundaries of masculinity. The high proportion of boys, relative to girls, who...

Dimensionality of Sexual Orientation

In the past sexual orientation was understood somewhat simplistically. Sexual orientation was treated as a binary construct An individual was either heterosexual or homosexual. However, that understanding failed to explain bisexuality. The bipolar view of sexual orientation utilized by Alfred Kinsey conceived of sexual orientation along a continuous scale, with exclusive homosexuality at one end and exclusive heterosexuality at the other. According to this view, bisexuals are individuals who (1) are strongly attracted to people of the same sex and to those of the opposite sex, (2) are moderately attracted to those of the same sex and to those of the opposite sex, or (3) are weakly attracted to those of the same sex and to those of the opposite sex. The bipolar conceptualization of sexual orientation has been criticized for being one-dimensional and characterized as being similar to seeing masculinity and femininity as the opposite ends of a scale.

Pre Christian Greece and Rome

Scholars have long known that in ancient Greece, adult male citizens engaged in pederasty (sex between men and boys), a practice that was a thoroughly acceptable part of Greek social and cultural anthropology. It was common for adult male citizens (not slaves) to initiate young boys into the rituals of manhood, which included sexual partnering. This same practice was not followed in ancient Rome, though same-sex relationships did exist there.

Theories on the Cause of Homosexuality

Unlike these first three perspectives, experience-based developmental theory recognizes the potential role of biology and posits that biological factors code for childhood personality types and temperaments, which then are molded into gender roles. Once children develop gender roles, those who are different are seen as exotic and other. Lesbians develop from girls who fit masculine gender roles, and heterosexual women develop from girls who fit feminine gender roles. This theory is similar in many respects to the indirect biological model of homosexuality.

Their Nature and Extent

Date Rape and Acquaintance Rape on College Campuses. A study of students at 32 American institutions of higher education showed that 28 of the women had experienced a rape or rape attempt since age 14, and that 8 of the men admitted having committed at least one rape (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Investigating a fraternity rape at the University of Pennsylvania, Sanday (1990b, p. 9) argued that sexual aggression is the means by which some men display masculinity and induct younger men into masculine power roles. The campus party culture that encourages group sexual aggression against lone college women promotes their seduction with alcohol and drugs, defines a drunken woman as asking for it, and labels men who object to this kind of behavior as wimps and faggots (p. 11). The community supports such behavior. The Penn case settled out of court and the fraternity house closed for one semester. Some fraternities are more dangerous for women than others. Boswell and Spade (1996)...

Nutrients in the soil in the absence of permanently cultivated fields hotcold health systems See humoral medicine human

A ceremony which marks the passage of an individual from one status to another. Male initiation ceremonies are often required of all boys in a society and mark the transition from boyhood to manhood. In societies with age-sets, initiation ceremonies may mark a series of transitions to different stages of life. Male initiation ceremonies often involve trauma such as hazing, genital operations, or tests of manliness. Female initiation ceremonies, which commonly occur after the onset of menstruation, are usually for one individual at a time. intensive agriculture. Food production characterized by the permanent cultivation of fields and made possible by the use of the plow, draft animals or machines, fertilizers, irrigation, water-storage techniques, and other complex agricultural techniques. in vitro fertilization. Fertilization that occurs in a laboratory.

Differences and Similarities between Female and Male Managers

Behavioral theories focus on managers' behavior. There are three main types of behavioral theory. The first distinguishes between two types of behavior task-oriented style and interpersonally oriented style. The second distinguishes between two types of leadership autocratic and democratic. The third type, situational theory, regards different types of behavior appropriate for various situations. The behavioral theories implicitly suggest that better managers are either masculine (i.e., high-task low-interpersonal style, autocratic decision-making) or feminine (i.e., low-task high-interpersonal style, democratic decision-making) (Powell, 1993). Schein's (1973) classic study concluded that both female and male executives believed that managers possessed characteristics that were more associated with men than with women. In later studies that examined the perceptions of executive women, women no longer describe successful managers as having only masculine characteristics. More recent...

Jungs Theory Of Personality

And accept the course of events and indications of their disintegration). One of the components of the collective unconscious (or objective psyche) is called archetypes (other names for this component are dominants, primordial images, imagoes, mythological images, and behavior patterns), which are universal ideas that are emotion-laden and create images visions that correspond allegedly to some aspect of the conscious situation in normal waking life (cf., theory of phylogenesis -refers to the origin and biological development of a species as a whole, but Jung extended this theory within psychology to include the development of the psyche and archetypes the theory of racial memory unconscious - holds that people inherit the common body of experiences and memories of all past humans, and that in human consciousness such elements continue from generation to generation thus, humans not only inherit their physical aspects from their ancestors, but their memories as well). Other components...

Labelingdeviance Theory

Labeling theory of deviant behavior, also called societal-reaction theory, postulates an interaction between individuals and their social environment where society both defines and produces deviance. That is, labeling theory focuses on society's reaction to personal behavior as a fundamental aspect of a deviance-producing process. Whereas other models of deviance may place the source of deviance solely within the individual or solely within society, the labeling theory emphasizes the interactive processes between society and the individual (cf., the residual deviance hypothesis - holds that behavioral disorders are due, after all other reasons have been exhausted or excluded, to the individual's intention to break society's rules and the transgenerational hypothesis - holds that deviant behavior may be explained on the basis of its having been acquired or learned from previous generations). According to labeling theory, deviance is created by other individuals' reactions to a given...

Adlers Theory Of Personality

Where one strives for perfect completion and is driven upwardly toward higher goals (3) inferiority feelings and compensation (Adler accepted being called the father of the inferiority complex) - humans are motivated by the need to overcome any perceived or felt level of inferiority that arises from a sense of incomple-tion or imperfection in any area of their lives (cf., Adler's term masculine protest which denotes a cluster of personality traits in either gender arising as overcompensation for feelings of inferiority and rejection of the feminine role) (4) innate social interest - humans' striving for superiority becomes socialized where working for the common good permits individuals to compensate for their weaknesses (5) style of life - the system principle, or self-created life plan, by which the unique individual personality achieves a higher level of functioning in life and where all the person's drives, feelings, memories, emotions, and cognitive processes are subordinate to...

An Overview of Sex Differences in Personality

Differences between men and women are evident on scales designed to measure sex role identification. Differences for these scales occur in the obvious direction (males are more Masculine, females more Feminine) in part because of the way in which the scales were created. Sex differences are also present in scales measuring aspects of personality not directly related to sex roles. Men, in comparison with women, obtain scores which indicate that they are more Assertive, less Anxious, have higher Self-Esteem and a greater sense of agency (Internal Locus of Control).

Scales Designed to Measure Sex Role Identification

Some scales have been designed specifically to measure sex or gender role identification as an aspect of personality. One of the earliest of these was the Mf scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), which was created shortly after World War II. The original Mf scale was used to assess homosexuality in men. It was developed by the method of extreme groups (empirical criterion keying Anastasi & Urbina, 1997, p. 351) for which the MMPI is famous, with male soldiers representing the extremely male group and female airline employees the extremely female group. Answers that matched those of the soldiers were keyed as masculine while answers that matched those of the female group were keyed as feminine. Many items from the original scale which addressed emotions, relationships, and hobbies remain in the present form of the test (MMPI-2 Hathaway & McKinley, 1989). The extreme group identified in the MMPI-2 manual is men who sought psychiatric help in respect of...

Intersexuality

The Pokot, living in Kenya, respond to intersexed individuals as an extremely unfortunate occurrence, and frequently resort to infanticide (Edgerton, 1964). The Navajo classify such individuals as belonging to a third category that is neither masculine nor feminine (Hill, 1935). Most segments of middle class U.S. culture tend to see such people as mistakes of nature and seek to correct the error. For the Pokot, there is no cultural place for those they call sererr, and those few who survive live on the margins of the society. U.S. cultures also have no place for intersexed individuals, but try to fit them into one of the two normatively accepted categories.

Bipolar Constructs

The cultural worlds of North America and Western Europe organize their varied understandings of sex-gender-sexuality systems around a set of intersecting dichoto-mous pairs masculine-feminine and homosexual (forbidden)-heterosexual (permitted). This paradigm then constrains and directs understandings of sexual behavior, sexualized behavior, and their association with nonsexual aspects of social and cultural life. When preadolescent North American boys avoid some activities or modes of behavior because they are said to be girlish, or when preadolescent girls are harassed for engaging in activities said to be boyish, we are witnessing something more than socialization for a culture's sexual division of labor. managers and involved parents are often thought of as disturbingly feminine. Similarly, to the extent that the outside is defined as masculine space and is also associated with excelling in nonhousehold tasks and with husband and economic support roles, it too becomes partially...

Transcendent Gender

The peoples falling into this category pose significant theoretical questions about the strength of cultural linkages between gender constructs and biological sex. Smith Oboler's (1980) description of marriage between two women among the Nandi explicitly explores this ground (see also the chapter on the Nandi in this encyclopedia). Her conclusion is that some aspects of male behavior and privileges are lightly tied to concepts of masculinity, so that it is possible for a woman to become husband to another woman, and in so doing be able to own land and other masculine property, as well as found her own patri-lineage. Unfortunately, she provides no direct material regarding sexuality.

Conclusion

Ultimately, reducing all sex-gender-sexuality systems to acceptance or rejection of homosexuality imposes a universal foreground, as well as a bipolar system that is consistent with the dichotomous thinking of most Western cultures. If we look at the Western system, which operates with two intersecting dichotomies (masculine-feminine and heterosexual permitted -homosexual forbidden ), and the effort to change that model and the values and meanings attached to it, the desire to demonstrate the acceptance of homosexuality on the large cross-cultural canvas becomes understandable. But the distortion of complex sex-gender-sexuality systems in service to that aim does a disservice to the cultural integrity of many peoples and to their efforts to recapture traditional patterns that have often been suppressed.

Social Role Theory

The different social roles that men and women play are based on the sexual division of labor and, according to social role theory, these role differences lead to differences in the behaviors of males and females. The division of labor and the status hierarchy of gender result from differences in reproduction and in the physical size and strength of women and men (Wood & Eagly, 1999), with differences typically favoring men (Eagly, Wood, & Diekman, 2000). Differences in position and power lead to differences in gender roles which include both beliefs and expectations (Cialdini & Trost, 1998) about what men and women do. Because women more frequently assume the domestic role, characteristics assumed to exemplify homemakers are stereotypically ascribed to women in general. Similarly, characteristics thought to typify providers are ascribed to men in general (Eagly et al., 2000). Cultural expectations promote conformity to gender roles and influence perceptions of masculinity and...

Childrens Activities

In a study of Australian youth aged 6-7 years, boys were found to be more engaged in competitive sports, and girls in ballet and dance (Russell & Russell, 1992). In many studies (e.g., Edwards, 2000), girls have been more often observed playing with dolls, handling household objects, and participating in dress-up and art activities. Their play activities and toy preferences more often focus on domestic roles and nurturance. In contrast, boys are often found playing with store-bought or handmade vehicles, weapons, building materials, sports equipment, or other objects considered culturally masculine. In Senegal, the pretend play of girls focuses on domestic activities over the course of childhood boys engage in domestic pretend play at age 2, but increasingly turn to themes involving transportation and hunting as they get older (Bloch & Adler, 1994).

Background

To the (male) boss (Pringle, 1988), and in a similar way the supportive wife mother looks up to the authoritative husband father. There are inequalities that favor men on various criteria including salary and professional grade. Male dominance is preserved by multiple barriers, both psychological and structural. Feminist theory argues that sex roles exist in patriarchal societies and organizations where established social structures and relationships favor men (Gough, 1998). Gender regime exists and continues to exist (Wahl, 1992). Social roles are gendered and determined by a variety of social, political, and economic factors, and in addition to sex and biological differences between men and women, there are cultural and historical factors that create them. It is generally believed that leadership, organizational culture, and communication are constructed with a masculine subtext, and dominant views on leadership are difficult to integrate with femininity (Aaltio, 2002 Lipman-Blumen,...

Glass Ceiling

(1993) argues that in order for women to be successful in organizations, they have to be very self-conscious of their own behavior and keep constant control of what they are saying and how they are acting. Oakley (2000) claims that women in middle- and lower-management positions often play down their femininity and instead adopt a masculine style to increase credibility.

Defining Gender

(e.g., Oxford English Dictionary Online, 2001) provide constructions that are more complex. Perhaps the most common understanding of gender may be found in Perry (1999, p. 8) who states that gender is defined here as the cultural construction of femininity and masculinity as opposed to the biological sex (male or female) which we are born with. Observe that both of these definitions are based upon the biblical norm of sex and hence of the associated construct that Witten (2004, in press) calls the biblical norm of gender. Contrast these definitions with the 1984 definition (Webster, 1984), which states that gender is any of two or more italics added categories, as masculine, feminine, and neuter, into which words are divided and that determine agreement with or selection of modifiers or grammatical forms. This viewpoint is further supported in the following statement from the Oxford English Dictionary Online (2001)

Defining Sexuality

The Western biomedical model of sex and gender, coupled with the Judeo-Christian model of reproduction and sexuality, provides for only one socially acceptable model of sexuality, namely heterosexuality. The concept of heterosexuality is based upon a sexing of the body that forces the body to be seen as either male or female (based upon the observed genitalia) and either masculine or feminine (based upon the individual's self-perception), and is coupled with the expected reproductive role required of those two states of being. The tacit assumption is that a male (genetically XY), with masculine self-perception and social role acceptance in the best of all reproductive worlds when having sexual intercourse with a female (genetically XX), with feminine self-perception and social role acceptance, will produce a child having either of these two states. Such a construction is

Anthropology

Cultural anthropologists have long understood rape and incest from the perspective of the rules surrounding them, and the roles that rules play in structuring social life and making culture possible. More attention has been paid to how incest taboos promote networks of social relations and economic exchange that are constitutive of the social world than to the potential for incest taboos to protect the young against incestuous abuse (Meigs & Barlow, 2002, p. 39). The rape of an enemy's women is more often seen as a means by which leaders encourage bonds among groups of young males than as acts of physically and emotionally devastating aggression against females. Biosocial explanations are mixed, with some arguing that inbreeding avoidance is evolutionarily old and others that the learning of taboos and genetic transmission are not mutually exclusive alternatives. The latter view dovetails with the biosocial perspective that sexual aggression and male dominance are natural male...

Engendering Violence

In Masculinities, Violence, and Culture, Hatty (2000) notes that violence is not a deviant act, it is a conforming one, and that violence against women is part of a larger context of normative male violence. In the United States, cultural ideals promote violence in the service of the masculine self, preserving individuality and forestalling fusion with the dangerous nonself, the other, the feminine (Hatty, 2000, pp. 10-11). Sexual aggression and violence are means of social control, hierarchy, and inequality. Domestic violence, rape, sexual slavery, and sexual harassment, whether in the United States, Zimbabwe, or the Philippines, are located in relationships of power, dominance, and privilege (Davies, 1994). Such relationships are supported by hegemonic masculinity unattainable by most men and by definition all women. Brownmiller (1975, p. 309) claimed that women are trained to be rape victims. Examining the popular and scientific cultural imagination of American society, we find...

In search of causes

The justifications of causal relations, moreover, are as stereotyped as the relations themselves and most often take the form of extreme generalisations. To come back to our example, the thesis in which hunting always implies a sexual division of labour (hunting masculine and gathering feminine) is frequently founded on the following premises

Transformations

This particular institution has been thoroughly researched, and a variety of psychogenic or sociogenic hypotheses have been tested (Munroe, Munroe, & Whiting, 1981, pp. 611-632). Those hypotheses revolving around cultural establishment of a secure masculine identity have been most convincingly supported. The interesting aspect of that explanation here is that in societies practicing couvade, secure masculine identity is anchored by a temporary gender transformation.

Men And Power

Cinderella and the Prince, Penelope and Odysseus She must be good and patient, sometimes no more than meltingly beautiful, but He must quest. His road to love is through actively establishing his masculine worth, thereupon being enabled to claim his prize. Sex roles may have changed to some degree, but the quintessential love plots appear to have considerable durability. For men, the typical adventurous journey recounted in fairy tale and epic is prelude to and embodiment of the amorous quest the male must establish his masculine identity before he is internally free to love. In the archetypal adventure, the hero, alone, sets out somewhat innocently, unaware of the immense tests he will inevitably face. The hero, like the lover, is often looking for something lost magic sword or holy grail (his full phallic strength perhaps) he is bent on defeating a threatening dragon or confronting other grave dangers (to self or country, king or maiden). The danger he faces is externalized. It is...

Women And Romance

Life's central romance, at least for many women, is the quest for an ideal love relationship. It is the only quest readily available to most women except for motherhood, and this generally (though of course not always) awaits pair bonding. The rewards of this feminine quest are elegantly stated by Rachel Brownstein in her book Becoming a Heroine The marriage plot most novels depend on is about finding validation of one's uniqueness and importance by being singled out among all other women by a man. The man's love is proof of the girl's value, and payment for it. Her search for perfect love through an incoherent, hostile wilderness of days is the plot that endows the aimless life with aim. Brownstein, like many others, emphasizes the crucial distinction between the female search for feminine identity through intimacy and the male search for masculine identity through achievement. (The woman finds her identity through the self-in-relationship.) Radway describes the typical heroine as...

Applications

Feminist therapy was originally developed by, practiced by, and applied to work with women. However, there has been increased recognition of the ways in which men's traditional roles and socialization can also be restrictive. Feminist therapy may be used to help men redefine masculinity according to values other than power, prestige, and privilege. Feminist therapy may also help men integrate relationship and achievement needs increase men's capacity for intimacy, emotional expression, and self-disclosure create mutually rewarding and collaborative relationships and learn noncoercive problem-solving methods. In order to affirm men's contributions to justice and egalitarianism while also preserving the uniqueness of women's experiences as therapists and clients, some feminist therapists refer to the feminist activities of male therapists as profeminist therapy. Profeminist approaches are applicable to a wide range of men's problems including depression, anger management, interpersonal...

Early human period

In addition to this well-structured matrix, the authors of our texts turn other common-sense topics to good account. The examples are legion the projection onto primitive humans of the attributes of the Wild Man, a folklore figure the anthropogenic role of bipedalism with all the symbolic connotations that philosophical and theological traditions assign to upright posture a still lively Lamarckian principle, always about to resurface in the arguments that claim to be in harmony with the most up-to-date evolutionary theory the idea of the natural 'frailty' of women, linked with the ancient symbolic system of a weak, soft womanhood contrasted with a hard, strong manhood well adapted to hunting the references to proverbs ('necessity is the mother of invention'), or to illusions of introspection ('thought is impossible without language').

Gender

The dominion of masculine over feminine and its effects upon health has been extensively covered in the medical anthropology literature, and any discussion here will be cursory at best. Some of the earliest accounts are those by Gilman (1993). First published in 1891, Gilman describes the way in which women are confined and coerced by biomedicine. Since that time, many writers have commented upon their mistreatment at the hands of the biomedical establishment (Davis-Floyd, 1992 Ehrenreich & English, 1978 Laurence & Weinhouse, 1994 Martin, 1991 Rapp, 1988).

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