co-sleeping. Refers to a diverse class of human-wide sleeping arrangements (e.g., mother-infant, husband-wife-children) wherein at least two or more persons sleep within proximity to permit each to detect, monitor, and exchange sensory stimuli.
commercialization. The increasing dependence on buying and selling, with money usually as the medium of exchange.
commodification. Turning something into a commodity that can be bought or sold.
compadrazgo. A fictive kinship relationship established primarily through baptism in which a child's sponsor becomes a "co-parent" and establishes a relationship with the child's parents as well as with the child. concubinage. The custom of a socially recognized nonmarital sexual relationship between a man and a woman
(concubine) who has lower status than the wife. congenital. Referring to conditions that are present at birth (and that usually existed before birth). consanguineal kin. One's biological relatives; relatives by birth. contraceptives. Any of a class of methods or substances used to prevent conception. cosmopolitan medicine. See biomedicine.
couvade. The classic couvade is when a man appears to experience labor during his wife's pregnancy; in milder forms a man may avoid certain types of work or rest during the pregnancy or labor. Creole language. A language that develops under conditions where there are many different linguistic speakers needing to communicate. The most common cases are where colonial powers established commercial enterprises that relied on imported, often slave, labor. First a pidgin develops, which is usually a simplified version of the master's language, lacking many important elements of language. Creoles develop out of pidgins and are complex languages with distinct grammars different from the original languages. crime. Violence not considered legitimate that occurs within a political unit.
cross-cousins. Children of siblings of the opposite sex. One's cross-cousins are father's sisters' children and mother's brothers' children.
critical medical anthropology. The perspective that emphasizes that social and political factors (e.g., poverty, social inequality, discrimination, structural violence, toxic work environments) are important elements in understanding and treating health and disease. cross-sex identification. The psychological identification with the opposite sex (e.g., a boy who wishes to be like his mother).
cultural anthropology. The study of cultural variation and universals.
cultural competency. The expectation that medical professionals and bioethicists will understand and consider the cultural values and beliefs of all involved parties. cultural ecology. The analysis of the relationship between a culture and its environment.
cultural relativism. The attitude that a society's customs and ideas should be viewed within the context of that society's problems and opportunities. culture. The set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population.
culture bound syndrome. A phrase used to describe behavioral syndromes unknown to mainstream psychiatry and denominated only by terms in local languages. There is considerable debate about whether such syndromes (e.g., amuk or amok, latah, "nerves") are that culture bound, suggesting that they may be somewhat different manifestations of more known illnesses. cultural consensus analysis. Refers to both a theory and a mathematical model for estimating how much of a given domain of culture each individual informant 'knows' as well as estimating the 'correct' cultural response to each question that can be asked about the particular domain of culture under consideration. cupping. A procedure that draws blood to the surface of the body by using a glass vessel evacuated by heat. Darwinian medicine. The search for evolutionary explanations of vulnerabilities to disease. Also called evolutionary medicine.
death. Concepts vary across cultures and relate to how a culture defines the end of an individual's personhood; such concepts have varied over time and may even vary within cultures. (In the U.S. laws regarding definitions of death are established by individual states which define death as an event marked by the cessation of either respiratory, cardiac, or brain functioning.) demographic transition. See epidemiological transition.
demography. The study of human populations, mostly using methods of quantitative analysis. Demographers may study such characteristics as the age-composition of populations, fertility, fecundity, and mortality. dengue fever. Like malaria, dengue causes fever, headache and chills, as well as body pain and skin rash. Unlike malaria it is not recurrent, although persons who have had dengue are at elevated risk for the more serious forms of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue toxic shock syndrome. dependency theory. Views "underdeveloped" or "developing" nations which have not yet had substantial economic growth as being the integral result of the processes by which other nations became "developed;" in other words, relations of dependency arose because of colonial, usually Western, powers. depression. A mood state including feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and other negative feelings. Short-lived depression is normal. See clinical depression. descriptive term. Kinship term used to refer to a genealogically distinct relative; a different term is used for each relative.
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