diabetes mellitus. A group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar or hyperglycemia. A form of diabetes with onset in childhood is often called Type 1 diabetes; genetic factors play a major role and insulin deficiency is almost total. Type 2 or adult-onset diabetes is related to obesity. dialect. A variety of a language spoken in a particular area or by a particular social group. diarrheal. Disease characterized by a high number and frequent bowel movements with watery stool. disability. From a relativist perspective, impairment-disability is a mapping of what a particular culture or subculture perceives as anomalous physical or behavioral differences. A more "etic" definition from the World Health Organization defines disabilities as "any restriction or lack resulting from an impairment of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being." disease. A biomedically measurable lesion or anatomical or physiological irregularity. Compare with illness.
divination. Getting the supernatural to provide guidance, usually through the use of magic. diviners. Practitioners of divination.
division of labor. Rules and customary patterns specifying which kinds of work different kinds of people (e.g., by age, gender, caste) perform.
DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid; a long two-stranded molecule in the genes that directs the makeup of an organism according to the instructions in its genetic code. dolichocephaly. Having a disproportionately long head.
domestic violence. Physical aggression, often repetitive, by one or more members of the household against another member or members.
dominant. The allele of a gene pair that is always phenotypically expressed in the heterozygous form.
Down's syndrome. A congenital disorder caused by an extra chromosome on the chromosome 21 pair. Often associated with congenital heart defects, mental retardation; individuals usually have a broad, short skull, broad fingers with short digits and up-slanted eyes. double descent. A system that affiliates an individual with a group of matrilineal kin for some purposes and with a group of patrilineal kin for other purposes. Also called double unilineal descent. dowry. A substantial transfer of goods or money from the bride's family to the bride.
drug. Generally is a substance that affects the functioning of living things; with regard to medicine it refers to any substance used as a medicine; in lay parlance drugs are often thought of as substances (sometimes illegal) that lead to addiction or altered states of consciousness. Although drugs are usually thought of as not foods, certain foods (drug foods) can have pharmacological properties. dysentery. Any of a number of disorders that involves inflammation of the intestines, often accompanied by pain in the abdomen and frequent bowel movements. ecology. The field of study concerned with the inter-relationships between organisms and their environments which together constitute the ecosystem. ecosystems. All the interrelationships between the organisms and the physical environment in a particular geographical space.
egalitarian society. A society in which all persons of a given age-sex category have equal access to economic resources, power, and prestige. ego. In the reckoning of kinship, the reference point or focal person. emetic. A substance that causes vomiting.
emic. From the perspective of the insider; often referring to the point of view of the society studied; contrast with etic.
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