The links between the moral order and reproductive health are particularly marked in cases of infertility. The inability to bear a child is understood to reflect moral status, and in particular is usually blamed upon the woman who may suffer abuse and ostracism. In Africa, infertility carries a grave social stigma, and there is an elaborate range of traditional remedies used to address it (Ebin, 1994; Kielmann, 1998). Likewise, Chinese medicine reflects the cultural emphasis placed upon fertility (Farquhar, 1991) and women are often subjected to intense traditional and biomedical interventions to conceive (Handwerker, 1998).
The dissemination of new technologies for prenatal testing, fertility enhancement, selective reproduction, and cloning technologies, as well as new contraceptive technologies, including male contraceptives, pose new examples of the intervention of biomedicine into reproduction and its social impact. Feminist researchers have questioned the value and effects of some new reproductive technologies and the complex ways in which women are positioned in their use of these technologies and how they gain and lose power over reproduction in the process (Birke Himmelweit, & Vines, 1990; Franklin, 1990; Rapp, 1990, 1991, 1999; Sandelowski, 1990, 1991). For example, women's access to and choices about prenatal testing is mediated by differences in class position, racial-ethnic, and religious backgrounds and provides another example of "stratified reproduction" (Lock, 1998; Rapp, 1999). Surrogacy arrangements are also challenging kinship relationships and definitions (Kaplan, 1999; Modell, 1989). Although these technologies are increasingly available in developing countries, there is little work on the practices and meanings of amniocentesis and other reproductive technologies such as in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in these settings.
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A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.