Nutrients in the soil in the absence of permanently cultivated fields hotcold health systems See humoral medicine human paleontology See paleoanthropology

human genome project. A worldwide project to determine the DNA sequences in all human DNA. human variation. The study of how and why contemporary human populations vary biologically. humoral medicine. A variety of medical systems based on the belief that a balanced state assures health, while an excess or deficiency yields illness. The balance needs to be maintained between various humors (see humors) and/or between elements such as "heat" and "cold." Deducing the etiology of an illness points the way to appropriate therapy through the application of the "principle of opposites:" for example, illness caused by cold is treated with hot therapies, and vice versa. humors (humours). One of a number of vital elements in the body (usually fluids). The various humoral medical systems had different numbers of basic humors. hunter-gatherers. People who collect food from naturally occurring resources, that is, wild plants, animals, and fish.

The phrase "hunter-gatherers" minimizes sometimes heavy dependence on fishing. Also referred to as foragers. hydropathy. The treatment of diseases with the copious and frequent use of pure water. hypotheses. Predictions, which may be derived from theories, about how variables are related. hypercholesterolemia. One of the genetic forms of coronary heart disease that manifests in the 4th or 5th decade of life. Genetically deficient low-density lipoprotein (LDL) protein receptors (LDLRs) in the liver cause LDL cholesterol to accumulate in the blood, resulting in high blood cholesterol, atherosclerosis and heart disease. hyperglycemia. Too high a level of glucose in the blood.

hypoglycemia. An abnormally diminished concentration of glucose in the blood.

hypertension. Persistent high blood pressure (the force that the blood moving through the arteries exerts on the arterial walls).

hypertriglyceridemia. Elevation of triglycerides in the bloodstream. hypoxia. A condition of oxygen deficiency that often occurs at high altitudes.

hysteria. A condition (often considered a neurosis) marked by excitability and other emotional outbursts with disturbances of sensory and motor functions. iatrogenic. Introduced inadvertently by medical treatment or medical procedures.

illness. The culturally structured, personal experience of being unwell which entails the experience of suffering. "Illness" can refer to a variety of conditions cross-culturally. In some cultures, it is limited to somatic experiences; in others it includes mental dysfunction; in others it includes suffering due to misfortune, too. immunization. The process by which disease resistance is acquired. It may occur in an organism naturally when the organism produces its own antibodies in response to a pathogen or it may occur artificially with a vaccine. incest taboo. Prohibition of sexual intercourse or marriage between mother and son, father and daughter, and brother and sister. May be extended to other relatives. incidence. Most commonly a ratio of new cases of a disease or condition for a standard population size (e.g., per

100,000 in a given year) in a particular population. Compare with Prevalence. incomplete dominance ("co-dominance"). The key features of this dominant mode are that a new mutation results in a new phenotype in the heterozygote, and its phenotype is intermediate between the two homozygotes. A familiar human example is the wavy-haired heterozygous offspring of straight- and curly-haired homozygous parents. The A and B alleles in the ABO blood groups interact in a codominant fashion. individual selection. Natural selection of individual characteristics. infant mortality. See mortality.

infanticide. The practice of killing newborn babies; in many cultures it is not considered a crime and is generally practiced when the parents say that they do not have the resources to rear the baby. infectious disease. Any of a number of diseases that results from a microorganism.

infibulation. Female genital surgery that involves stitching together the vulva leaving only a small opening for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. Usually done following circumcision. See circumcision. influenza (flu). An acute viral infection involving the respiratory tract. It is also characterized by headache, aches, and fever.

initiation ceremony (or rite). A ceremony which marks the passage of an individual from one status to another. Male initiation ceremonies are often required of all boys in a society and mark the transition from boyhood to manhood. In societies with age-sets, initiation ceremonies may mark a series of transitions to different stages of life. Male initiation ceremonies often involve trauma such as hazing, genital operations, or tests of manliness. Female initiation ceremonies, which commonly occur after the onset of menstruation, are usually for one individual at a time. intensive agriculture. Food production characterized by the permanent cultivation of fields and made possible by the use of the plow, draft animals or machines, fertilizers, irrigation, water-storage techniques, and other complex agricultural techniques. in vitro fertilization. Fertilization that occurs in a laboratory.

IQ. An abbreviation for intelligence quotient. An intelligence quotient is a numerical measure based on a standardized test designed to measure intelligence. Among the many criticisms of IQ tests are that they are generally culture bound and therefore not good measures of intelligence for people of cultures and subcultures other than for which the test was designed.

IUD. Abbreviation for intra-uterine device. A contraceptive that is placed within the uterus for the purpose of preventing conception.

jaundice. Yellowing of the skin and eyes by bilirubin, a bile pigment, often because of a liver problem. Neonatal jaundice sometimes occurs in newborns. joint family. A type of extended family with at least two married siblings in the same generation; can also contain parents.

karma. The doctrine that life is but one in a chain of lives and that it is determined by actions in a previous life.

Past acts in previous lives can influence not only the future life but also the time in between lives. kindred. A bilateral set of close relatives.

kula ring. A ceremonial exchange of valued shell ornaments in the Trobriand Islands, in which white shell armbands are traded around the islands in a counterclockwise direction and red shell necklaces are traded clockwise. kuru. A chronic, progressive, uniformly fatal transmissible neurodegenerative disease now known to be caused by a prion. It is named from the Fore word meaning to shiver, shake, or tremble. kwashiorkor. An extreme form of protein-energy malnutrition.

language family. A group of related languages that are presumed to descend from the same ancestral language. latah. An emotional disorder fairly common, especially among low ranking women, in Malay populations. The affected person seems to satirize traditional manners and to mimic the words and gestures of others with whom they are interacting.

leprosy. A disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae; it is characterized by lesions of the skin and superficial nerves. The extremities may become deformed and eroded. levirate. A custom whereby a man is obliged to marry his brother's widow. libidinal. Erotic in the broad sense defined by Freud, including pleasure.

life expectancy. The average number of years people might be expected to live in a particular population. It is based on the ages of death over a period of time. Populations with high infant mortality may have low life expectancies because of a large number of deaths at young ages; such populations might still have many people living to older ages.

liminality. Can refer to any transitional or in-between state, but usually refers to the transitional state in a rite of passage where an individual lacks status and prescribed codes of conduct. lineage. A set of kin whose members trace descent from a common ancestor through known links. longhouse. A multifamily dwelling with a rectilinear floorplan.

maidenhood. Refers to the customary period of time from the onset of puberty to marriage. mal de ojo. See evil eye.

magic. The performance of certain rituals that are believed to compel the supernatural powers to act in particular ways. maladaptive customs. Customs that diminish the chances of survival and reproduction in a particular environment. Usually applied to biological evolution, the term is often used by cultural anthropologists to refer to behavioral or cultural traits that are likely to disappear because they diminish reproductive success. malaria. A set of diseases caused by various species of Plasmodium protozoans that are transmitted to humans from the bite of the Anopheles mosquito. malnutrition. Deficient levels of intakes of specific nutrients.

mana. A supernatural, impersonal force that inhabits certain objects or people and is believed to confer success and/or strength. manumission. The granting of freedom to a slave.

market or commercial exchange. Transactions in which the "prices" are subject to supply and demand, whether or not the transactions occur in a marketplace. marriage. A socially approved sexual and economic union usually between a man and a woman that is presumed by both the couple and others to be more or less permanent, and that subsumes reciprocal rights and obligations between the two spouses and between spouses and their future children. matriarchy. An old general term for the disproportionate holding of power or authority by females; since there are many domains of authority and power, anthropologists now generally identify more specific institutions or customs such as the presence of matrilineal descent, matrilocal residence, the proportion of leaders or heads of household that are female, inheritance by females, etc. matriclan. A clan tracing descent through the female line.

matrilateral. Pertaining to the mother's side of the family, as in matrilateral cross-cousins or matrilateral parallel cousins.

matrilineage. A kin group whose members trace descent through known links in the female line from a common female ancestor.

matrilineal descent. The rule of descent that affiliates an individual with kin of both sexes related to him or her through women only.

matrilocal residence. A pattern of residence in which a married couple lives with or near the wife's parents. Often referred to as uxorilocal residence in the absence of matrilineal descent. measles. An acute viral infection caused by a Morbillivirus in the paramyoxovirus family. Later symptoms involve a red rash that spreads from the face. mediation. The process by which a third party tries to bring about a settlement in the absence of formal authority to force a settlement.

medical anthropology. A branch of anthropology that studies all aspects of health-related phenomena (health, illness, and health care); considers cultural systems as well as the effects of local and worldwide social and political environments.

medical ecology. Studies health and disease in environmental context. Central to the model is the concept of ecosystem. See ecosystem.

medical hegemony. The process by which the assumptions, concepts, and values of ruling classes or powers come to permeate medical diagnosis and treatment. medicalization. The process of making something "medical." In other words, the extension of biomedicine into non-biomedical realms (e.g., pregnancy, birth, menopause, exercising). medical pluralism. In contrast to indigenous societies, which tend to exhibit a more-or-less coherent medical system, state or complex societies have an array of medical systems—a phenomenon generally referred to by medical anthropologists, as well as medical sociologists and medical geographers, as medical pluralism. medium. Part-time religious practitioner who is asked to heal and divine while in a trance.

meiosis. The process by which reproductive cells are formed. In this process of division, the number of chromosomes in the newly formed cells is reduced by half, so that when fertilization occurs the resulting organism has the normal number of chromosomes appropriate to its species. menarche. The onset of menstruation.

menstrual seclusion. A mandated time that women must avoid all or some others (e.g., men) during their menstruation. Seclusion is often in a special menstrual hut or house. menstrual taboos. Proscriptions about what women may or may not do during menstruation (e.g., must stay in a menstrual hut or avoid cooking for others); rules may also apply to men (e.g., they may not have sex with their wives during menstruation).

mental disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders definition is a "clinically significant... syndrome or pattern" in which an individual exhibits behavioral or psychological patterns that are associated with "distress, disability, or increased risk of pain or death;" anthropologists have pointed out a number of problems applying this definition cross-culturally. For example, many cultures do not clearly distinguish between mental and physical disorders. mental illness. See mental disorder.

mental retardation. Definitions of mental retardation need to consider the context of the individual's culture and their peers in that culture. In the United States, mental retardation is often defined as a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior. mesaticephalic. Having a medium-length head.

mestizo. A person of mixed European and Native American heritage; this term is usually used in Latin America. microevolution. Small scale evolutionary change within populations or species. midwife. A specialist to assist at birth. mitochondrial DNA. See mtDNA.

mitochondrial inheritance. The inheritance of a trait encoded in the mtDNA. mitosis. Cellular reproduction or growth involving the duplication of chromosomal pairs.

moiety. A unilineal descent group in a society that is divided into two such maximal groups; there may be smaller unilineal descent groups as well. monogamy. Marriage between only one man and only one woman at a time. monogenic. Controlled by only one gene. monolingual. Using or knowing only one language.

monotheistic. Believing that there is only one high god and that all other supernatural beings are subordinate to, or are alternative manifestations of, this supreme being. morbidity. The proportion of sickness or a specific disease in a population.

mortality rate. Provides an indication, usually for comparative purposes, of the death rate in a population; may be expressed as the number of deaths per 100,000 population in a given year; may be more specifically addressed to specific age ranges such as the infant mortality rate (e.g., number of infant deaths/1000 live births). moxibustion. A medical practice that originated in China. Traditionally, small cones of dried leaves are burned on certain designated points of the body, generally the same points as those used in acupuncture. The term comes from the name of the wormwood plant most frequently used, Artemisia moxa. It is believed that burning or heating certain points on the body increased circulation "full-bloodedness" and relieved pain. Nowadays the heated material tends to be held above, not on, the body. mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA). Extranuclear DNA found in the mitochondria. Mitochondria are responsible for certain oxidative metabolic functions that store and release energy. Children (both males and females) inherit mtDNA from their mothers only. mumps. An acute infectious virus affecting the parotid glands, salivary glands in front and below the ear. multidimensional scaling. Provides a visual representation in which items responded to in similar ways are placed closer together in the scaling plot. mutation. A change in the DNA sequence, producing an altered gene. natal home. Where a person was born and (usually) grew up.

nationalism. A sense of consciousness that exalts one nation-state and seeks to promote that nation's values, culture, and interests above those of others. natural fertility. Populations whose fertility patterns are not influenced to any great extent by deliberate limitation of family size are referred to as natural fertility populations; their family size and spacing is a function of the biological capacities of individuals to reproduce (fecundity). natural selection. The outcome of processes that affect the frequencies of traits in a particular environment. Traits that enhance survival and reproductive success increase in frequency over time. naturalistic medical systems. Sickness is explained by impersonal forces or conditions, including cold, heat, and other forces that upset the body's balance. naturopathy. A treatment system that avoids drugs and surgery and emphasizes natural means (e.g., air, sunshine, water) and physical manipulation and exercise to invigorate the body and improve health. negotiation. The process by which the parties to a dispute try to resolve it themselves.

neolocal residence. A pattern of residence whereby a married couple lives separately, and usually at some distance, from the kin of both spouses. nephritis. Inflammation of the kidneys.

"nerves" (nervios, nervos, nevra, worriation). A widespread label for similar experiences in various cultures in which patients complain of headache, dizziness, fatigue, weakness, and abdominal pain and attribute their symptoms to sadness, anger, fear, or worry. nervios. The Spanish for "nerves." See "nerves."

neurasthenia. A disorder that is characterized by fatigue, lack of motivation, feelings of inadequacy, and psychosomatic symptoms.

neurofibromatosis. Genetic disorders of two types: the first is characterized by pale brown spots on the skin and soft benign, but sometimes disfiguring, tumors usually at nerve endings in the skin; the second is marked by tumors of the central nervous system and the acoustic nerve which can result in deafness.

neurological disease. A disease pertaining to the nerve tissue in the body (including the brain, brain stem, spinal cord, and ganglia).

neurosis. A form of mental distress which causes moderate to severe perturbation to relationships and ability to adapt, but not to the extent of being subject to delusions. Compare with psychosis. New World syndrome. A collection of metabolic disorders characterized by diabetes, obesity, high blood lipids, gallstones and gallbladder cancer, resulted from a combination of founder effect and selective pressures encountered in harsh arctic environments by the first New World immigrant populations. norms. Standards or rules about acceptable behavior in a society. The importance of a norm usually can be judged by how members of a society respond when the norm is violated. nuclear family. A family consisting of a married couple and their young children. nosology. The knowledge of and the classification of diseases.

nutritional anthropology. A subfield of medical anthropology in which nutritional implications of food intake, food as carrier of nutrients, nutritional status, human growth and health are the focus. Studies in nutritional anthropology draw on theories and methods from both biological and social sciences. oath. The act of calling upon a deity to bear witness to the truth of what one says.

obesity. A state of excess accumulation of fat on the body. Cultures differ in the degree to which fat is valued; most biomedical practitioners have standardized measures for assessing degree of fat. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A neurotic disorder in which a person becomes trapped in a pattern of repetitive thoughts and behaviors that are senseless and distressing but extremely difficult for the person to ignore. Usually accompanied by compulsions to repeat repetitive acts (e.g., washing hands). May if untreated interfere seriously with daily functioning. oedipal period. The time, according to Freudian theory, when a child develops an Oedipal complex, which refers to sexual attraction to the opposite sex parent and feelings of rivalry with the parent of the same sex. Such feelings are normally repressed when the child fears the anger of the opposite sex parent. May commonly occur between 3 to 6 years of age.

onchocerciasis. Although the common name for onchocerciasis is river blindness, this form of the disease is less common than onchocercal skin disease, a disorder characterized by lesions and depigmentation. ontology. The study of being or existence.

opportunistic infections. Infection with HIV is an example of an opportunistic infection because it weakens the immune system to the point that it has difficulty fighting off certain infections. These types of infections are called "opportunistic" infections because they take the opportunity a weakened immune system gives to cause illness. ordeal. A means of determining guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to dangerous or painful tests believed to be under supernatural control. paleoanthropology. The study of the emergence of humans and their later physical evolution. Also called human paleontology.

osteopathy. A profession that emphasizes the relationship between the muscle/skeletal structure of the body and organ function. Osteopathic physicians are skilled in recognizing and correcting structural problems through manipulation and other treatments. pandemics. Epidemics that occur over a wide geographic area.

paradigm. A general concept or model accepted by an intellectual community as a effective way of explaining phenomena.

participant-observation. Living among the people being studied—observing, questioning, and (when possible) taking part in the important events of the group. Writing or otherwise recording notes on observations, questions asked and answered, and things to check out later are parts of participant-observation. pastoralism. A form of subsistence technology in which food-getting is based directly or indirectly on the maintenance of domesticated animals. pater. The socially defined father. Compare with genitor. pathogen. Any disease-producing agent.

pathogenic. Causing or capable of causing disease. pathogenicity. The ability of a parasite to inflict damage on the host.

pathophysiology. Referring to the unfolding and sometimes complex process by which an otherwise healthy biological system, partially or wholly, either slowly or instantaneously, breaks down or somehow fails to serve its intended function, potentially harming or killing the organism. patriarchy. An old general term for the disproportionate holding of power or authority by males; since there are many domains of authority and power, anthropologists now generally identify more specific institutions or customs such as the presence of patrilineal descent, patrilocal residence, the proportion of leaders who are male, inheritance by males, etc. patriclan. A clan tracing descent through the male line.

patrilineage. A kin group whose members trace descent through known links in the male line from a common male ancestor.

patrilineal descent. The rule of descent that affiliates an individual with kin of both sexes related to him or her through men only.

patrilocal residence. A pattern of residence in which a married couple lives with or near the husband's parents.

Often referred to as virilocal residence in the absence of patrilineal descent. peasants. Rural people who produce food for their own subsistence but who must also contribute or sell their surpluses to others (in towns and cities) who do not produce their own food. penetrance. The frequency of expression of a certain phenotype; some alleles, even when present, are expressed less than 100% of the time, and thus are said to have a lowered penetrance. personalistic medical system. Disease and misfortunate are viewed as being caused by super-sensory or supernatural agents (usually anthropomorphic) intentionally directed toward afflicted individuals in acts initiated by humans (e.g., using sorcery) or by the super-sensory agents directly. Accident and chance are not involved. Compare with naturalistic medical systems. personality. The distinctive way an individual thinks, feels, and behaves.

pharmacogenetics. The convergence of pharmacology and genetics that deals with genetically determined reactions to drugs.

pharmacology. The study of drugs (their preparation, uses, and therapeutic effects). The term is usually used to refer to the scientific study of drugs associated with Biomedicine. Compare with ethnopharmacology. phenocopy. An environmentally produced phenotype that simulates the effect of a particular genotype. phenomenology. The investigation, as free as possible from preconceptions, of phenomena as experienced by people. With reference to health and illness, phenomenology may, for example, examine people's experiences and feelings about their own bodies, healing, and dying. phenotype. The observable physical appearance of an organism, which may or may not reflect its genotype or total genetic constitution.

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