Development of a Third Edition

Yet with the passing of the 1990s, the Encyclopedia again required a thorough revision and update. Warren Reich, professor emeritus at Georgetown and deeply engaged with a new project on the history of "care," decided not to prepare the third edition. He recommended Stephen Garrard Post— who had served as his associate editor in the preparation of the second edition—for the position of editor in chief of the third edition. Subsequently, Macmillan Reference, after consulting with Georgetown University (which had sponsored the first edition), offered the position of editor in chief to Post.

This invitation was accepted with the understanding that a third edition could only emerge from the already remarkable scope and framework of the revised edition, and would be much indebted to all those responsible for that extraordinary work, including the following area editors: Dan E. Beauchamp, Arthur L. Caplan, Christine K. Cassel, James F. Childress, Allen R. Dyer, John C. Fletcher, Stanley M. Hauerwas, Albert R. Jonsen, Patricia A. King, Loretta M. Kopelman, Ruth B. Purtillo, Holmes Rolston III, Robert M. Veatch, and Donald P. Warwick.

There are more than 110 new article titles in the third edition, and approximately the same number of new articles appearing under old titles. Thus, half of the third edition is entirely new, while half consists of deeply revised and updated articles from the earlier edition. There isn't a single article that was not thoroughly updated, even if only at the level of bibliographies. The least revision was needed in the topic areas of environmental ethics, population ethics, and the history of medical ethics. For all necessary revisions, we went back to the articles' original authors, whenever possible, and many accepted to undertake the revision work. In those cases where the original authors were not available, new authors were asked to complete the work. Both original and new authors are acknowledged and their contributions clearly identified in the bylines. A small but exceptional set of articles from the revised edition were designated by the editorial board as classics, and are retained in the third edition unchanged. These articles were selected because they were written by a distinguished contributor to the field and were still deemed definitive. For example, Daniel Callahan's article on "Bioethics" was retained as a classic, as was Reich's "Care: I: History of the Notion." Also included without revision are those articles under the title "Medical Ethics, History of," which do not pertain to the contemporary period. But all articles dealing with the contemporary period were significantly revised in order to be current with the many developments in bioethics over the past decade in countries and regions across the world.

EDITORIAL BOARD. The development of this third edition of the Encyclopedia was facilitated by a new editorial board consisting of area editors David Barnard, Dena S. Davis,

Eric T. Juengst, Loretta M. Kopelman, Maxwell J. Mehlman, Kenneth F. Schaffner, Bonnie Steinbock, Leonard J. Weber, and Stuart J. Youngner. These editors were selected because their particular expertise—as philosophers, ethicists, healthcare professionals, and teachers—was needed to revise and expand those topic areas from the revised edition where new developments had been particularly rapid over the 1990s. The Editor in Chief and the Editorial Board were responsible for the intellectual planning of the third edition, including all decisions about contents and authorship, as well as for reviewing and approving all manuscripts. Mark Aulisio served as associate editor for ethical theory and clinical ethics.

CONSULTANTS. William Deal, Patricia Marshall, Carol C. Donley, Sana Loue, Robert H. Binstock, and Barbara J. Daly made significant contributions to the quality of the overall work as editorial consultants. Carrie Zoubol assisted with bibliographical updating.

The Appendix, found in volume five of the Encyclopedia, consists largely of an exhaustive collection of historical and contemporary codes and oaths across all the healthcare professions, as well as research ethics guidelines and regulations. The remarkable collection of primary documents in the revised edition was thoroughly updated by Kayhan Parsi of the Neiswanger Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy at the Stritch School of Medicine of Loyola University. This was a major task because there have been so many revisions of contemporary documents since the early 1990s, as well as the introduction of many new policy and ethical statements from a wide array of professional organizations. Carol C. Donley contributed an annotated bibliography on literature and medicine from the Center for Literature, Medicine, and the Healthcare Professions at Hiram College. Emily Peterson added an annotated bibliography on law and medicine. Doris M. Goldstein, Director of Library and Information Services at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, thoroughly updated the section on "Additional Resources in Bioethics," which she had prepared for the revised edition. Volume five is the fruit of much labor and will be a definitive resource for the field over the next decade.

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