At the time of the first publication of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics in 1978, the then fledgling field of bioethics was neither well defined nor widely recognized. Warren Thomas Reich, then Senior Research Scholar in the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University, envisioned a major reference work that would contribute significantly to the establishment of bioethics as a field by integrating historical background, current issues, future implications, ethical theory, and comparative cultural and religious perspectives. Professor Reich became the editor in chief for the first edition, a four-volume set that, as he foresaw, was immediately acknowledged as a landmark reference work defining the field.

The 1978 edition received the American Library Association's 1979 Dartmouth Medal for outstanding reference work of the year, as well as widespread critical acclaim. The eminent bioethicist Daniel Callahan, writing for Psychology Today in March of 1979, entitled his stellar review of the Encyclopedia "From Abortion to Rejuvenation: A Summa of Medical Ethics." Choice declared the work "an outstanding achievement." Social Science described the work as "magnificent," and the Hastings Center Report acknowledged it as both "an astonishing achievement" and "a major event." Throughout the 1980s, as programs in bioethics and medical humanities proliferated in professional schools, undergraduate and graduate school curricula, "think tanks," and academic societies, the first edition of the Encyclopedia was considered the essential reference work in the field, and contributed significantly to intellectual vitality.

While the 1978 first edition will always be essential and fascinating reading for anyone interested in the history of bioethics, it was, by the late 1980s, in need of a revision. A reference work at the interface of biology, technology, healthcare and ethics becomes dated due to the fast pace of biotechnological development, changes in the healthcare delivery system, and the emergence of important new voices in a rapidly expanding field. Although in certain respects the modern bioethics movement began in the United States, it took root in many countries around the world during the 1980s, requiring the inclusion of scholarship from other nations and cultures in order to properly reflect worldwide growth. Professor Reich impressed all those working on the second edition with his remarkable grasp of the history of medical ethics, of the modern bioethics movement, of European thinkers, of religious ethics and moral philosophy, and of salient clinical issues.

The revised edition included various topic areas including: professional—patient relationship; public health; ethical theory; religious ethics; bioethics and the social sciences; healthcare; fertility and human reproduction; biomedical and behavioral research; history of medical ethics; mental health and behavioral issues; sexuality and gender; death and dying; genetics; population; organ and tissue transplantation and artificial organs; welfare and treatment of animals; environment; and codes, oaths, and other directives. All of these topics are retained and enhanced in the third edition.

The five-volume revised edition, which was carefully planned at editorial meetings in the spring and fall of 1990, was supported by both the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Science Foundation, in addition to several private foundations and individual donors. The Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation was a major funder of both the first and the revised editions. Published in 1995 by Macmillan Reference Division, it received the same high level of acclaim as the first edition.

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.

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